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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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[quote="shikhar"]The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing




I don´t agree that this is a poor quality questions. In fact, it tests modifiers, relative pronouns and adjective choice.

1. You should eliminate A and B because the relative pronoun "which" carries a singular verb "was". "Which" would be modifying (describing) the word "times" and, as we know, the word "times" is a plural.
2. You should eliminate answer choice C because of parallelism. "Differing" would not be parallel to anything in this sentence.
3. Between answer choice D and E we have to choose the correct adjective and meaning. If we say "differed from" we would be using the wrong idiom and we would be changing the meaning in an unacceptable way. "Differred from" would mean something like "kicked out" from. We don't want that meaning. Even if it were OK to say "differ from" it would be wrong to say that the local time is "differed". However, "differing from" does give us the meaining that we are looking for, by saying that the local time used to "differ from city to city" at that time.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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This question is about parallelism and modifier.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong.
- Parallelism problem. "which was ...." is a clause --> not parallel to "differing" which is Verb-ing modifier.
- "was" is wrong because "local times" is plural.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. Simple past tense "differed" is not correct. Because "local times" always differ from city to city.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Same as A. Clause and Verb-ing modifier are not parallel.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Verb-ed "differed" is not correct because local times themselves differ from city to city. --> should use Verb-ing modifier.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Correct. "determined by" and "differing" are modifiers and are parallel. Hence, E is correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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pqhai wrote:
This question is about parallelism and modifier.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong.
- Parallelism problem. "which was ...." is a clause --> not parallel to "differing" which is Verb-ing modifier.
- "was" is wrong because "local times" is plural.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. Simple past tense "differed" is not correct. Because "local times" always differ from city to city.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Same as A. Clause and Verb-ing modifier are not parallel.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Verb-ed "differed" is not correct because local times themselves differ from city to city. --> should use Verb-ing modifier.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Correct. "determined by" and "differing" are modifiers and are parallel. Hence, E is correct.

Hope it helps.



hey pqhai,

I get it why E is an answer, I got E too. my question is whether usage of which in C is correct or not(just forget about parallelism) .. what I think is "local times" is followed by an "of" hence it is a prepositional phrase, hence the noun is "the abolition" ..

so which is pointing to "the abolition" and use of "was" in A and B IMO is correct. what you say ??
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2014, 10:49
sasen wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"...out
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
THOGH "WERE" USAGE IS CORRECT,"WHICH WERE DETERMINED" should be parralel to
"WHICH WERE DIFFERING or WHICH DIFFERED"
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
HERE THE ELEMENTS ARE PARALLEL BUT IF YOU NOTICE CLOSELY DIFFERED USAGE IS
INCORRECT because THE SENTECNE IS TALKING ABOUT 2 PIECES ABOUT LOCAL TIME
A) DETERMINED BY ....
B) DIFFERING FROM CITY TO CITY
DIFFERED here is incorrect usage
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
CORRECT



Hey
I have a query : can we take "which were" as repetative in option C ... as in E the modifiers are parallel
in the first go I thought C is the answer as both are parallel and correct .... Please correct me where I am missing ...
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition [#permalink]

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

I originally got tripped up because we are programmed to look for parallelism. However if you treat the two parts of the sentence independently to see what they are modifying:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by... (yes)
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differed by city to city (no)
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing by city to city (yes)

Deferred doesn't need to be parallel to determined. It needs to fit with local time.

I choose E.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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The which modified phrase, to me, modifies the phase about the abolition instead of local times. So a,b and c are indirect for that reason. We're trying to modify local times not their abolition. Between d and e, you need past tense to initially received the local times but a gerund for describing the change between cities. So, that eliminates d. Answer E for me.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. S-V agreement. Times is plural.

B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. S-V agreement. Times is plural.

C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Parallelism. "which were determined....." is relative clause --> Not parallel to "differing" that is just Verb-ing modifier.

D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Times, themselves, differ from city to city. Active voice is correct. Verb-ed (differed) is not correct.

E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
CORRECT.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2014, 19:01
pqhai wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. S-V agreement. Times is plural.

B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. S-V agreement. Times is plural.

C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Parallelism. "which were determined....." is relative clause --> Not parallel to "differing" that is just Verb-ing modifier.

D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Times, themselves, differ from city to city. Active voice is correct. Verb-ed (differed) is not correct.

E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
CORRECT.

Hope it helps.


I'm having a difficult time understanding why we need to use "differing" instead of "differed". My gut tells me that it needs to be differed to stay parallel but all other sources says differed. Could you elaborate? Is it because it still presently differs even though the times were abolished?

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2014, 20:55
A and B use the incorrect was (singular) for local times. The plural is needed here.

In c, which were and differing aren't parallel and are incorrect modifiers for local times. Between D and E, I'm with E. The gerund/participle seems more appropriate for this case.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2014, 22:23
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BassanioGratiano wrote:
pqhai wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. S-V agreement. Times is plural.

B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. S-V agreement. Times is plural.

C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Parallelism. "which were determined....." is relative clause --> Not parallel to "differing" that is just Verb-ing modifier.

D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Times, themselves, differ from city to city. Active voice is correct. Verb-ed (differed) is not correct.

E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
CORRECT.

Hope it helps.


I'm having a difficult time understanding why we need to use "differing" instead of "differed". My gut tells me that it needs to be differed to stay parallel but all other sources says differed. Could you elaborate? Is it because it still presently differs even though the times were abolished?


Let Me try to explain this....
Read full sentence by putting the D option
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
What do you see? determined gives passive voice and followed by "by" so this gives the local times were determined by blah blah...so by meaning is ok but what you see after and is differed---so means local times were differed by city ---does this makes sense that local times were differed by city..?? it was local times themselves which differed so we use gerund here that local times differing ..means themselves were differing not by something else...
Hope it is clear..
Correct me If I am wrong
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 06:23
BassanioGratiano wrote:
I'm having a difficult time understanding why we need to use "differing" instead of "differed". My gut tells me that it needs to be differed to stay parallel but all other sources says differed. Could you elaborate? Is it because it still presently differs even though the times were abolished?


With D, the sentence would be:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Believe it or not, determined and differed are not parallel! determined is used as (what is called) past participle, while differed is a simple past tense verb.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses a simple 2-step framework of how to differentiate between participles and verbs, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail you the corresponding section.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2015, 03:47
This sentence tests Parallelism. The underline portion describes "Local times" (plural), so in the original sentence singular verb is wrong (A and B are out). Apart form the the original sentence has meaning issue, as it is trying to put "differing from city to..." parallel to "when the sun..." (c is out).
Between D and E, E is better because it keeps 2 "modifiers" parallel. Meaning is also clear in E.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2015, 04:22
How are the modifiers kept parallel in E?

The sun is the subject for the clauses "reached the observers meridian" and "differing from city to city". Hence, reached and differed should be parallel. I believe the correct option is D.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2015, 01:16
a) which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing
"which" modifies the immediate noun "times" (plural), so we "was" is incorrect

b) which was determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and which differed
"which" modifies the immediate noun "times" (plural), so we "was" is incorrect

c) which were determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing
"local times" which were determined by X and
"local times" which were differing from Y
"which were determined" and "which were differing"
NOT parallel.


d) determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differed
"local times" determined by X ("local times" acting as object) and
"local times" differed from Y ("local times" acting as subject)
NOT parallel.


e) determined by when the sun reached the observers meridian and differing.
"local times" determined by X and
"local times" differing from Y
"determined" and "differing" parallel. Both of them describing the features/ adjectives of "local times"

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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@e-gmat
TraderAK wrote:
topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


Answer E

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.


According to e-gmat, present participle after comma modifies the preceding clause by associating itself with the subject and the verb of the preceding clause.
So, in Sentence with modifier 2 only:
'The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times' differing modifies the preceding clause NOT the close noun 'local times' and associated with subject 'The growth of the railroads'. This is nonsensical to me, because the growth of the railroads can not led the abolition by differing from city to city.
Therefore, here, with comma, present participle cannot be || to past participle. To be || either both verb should be past participle or comma should be removed.

Correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2015, 22:55
Hi Guys,

This is a tough nut to crack.Let me try my best in explaining this.

The issue here is that of parallelism.If we use relative clause "which" to modify local times ,then we need a relative clause in the second part of the modifier as well but no option seems to be doing that.Option C successfully uses relative clause in the first part of the modifier but fails to do so in the second part,replacing the relative clause with the "participle modifier".So there is no parallelism using the relative clause here.

Now,the parallelism can also be maintained by the use of participle modifiers "-ed" and "-ing" forms.

Option E successfully brings about the intended meaning by using participle modifiers "detereminED" and "differING",thereby maintaining the paralleism.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2015, 04:56
topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


why C is wrong?
which were
determined
and
differing

can be paralel and correct.

because "differing " is too far from "determined", we need to repeat "which were" before "differing"
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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In D, ‘differed from’ is not a past participle; It is simply a past tense verb.

To find out whether an ‘Verb+ed’ word is past participle or past tense, use this thumb rule: Ask who is the agent of the “determined by”; the word ‘by’ indicates that the local times were determined by somebody other than the local times. However, note that the word ‘differed’ is not followed ‘by’ but by ‘from’. The agent of doing ‘differed’ is the local times. They themselves did the act of differing. So differed is a direct verb of the subject local times.
One can see that ‘determined by’ is phrase while (local times) differed from is a clause. So, both of them put in the same sentence cannot be parallel after conjunction ‘and’
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2016, 09:45
Mahmud6 wrote:
@e-gmat
TraderAK wrote:
topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


Answer E

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.


According to e-gmat, present participle after comma modifies the preceding clause by associating itself with the subject and the verb of the preceding clause.
So, in Sentence with modifier 2 only:
'The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times' differing modifies the preceding clause NOT the close noun 'local times' and associated with subject 'The growth of the railroads'. This is nonsensical to me, because the growth of the railroads can not led the abolition by differing from city to city.
Therefore, here, with comma, present participle cannot be || to past participle. To be || either both verb should be past participle or comma should be removed.

Correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning.


iyera211 wrote:
Can someone from eGmat please comment?

In OA e, why is the verb-ing modifier simply modifying "local times" instead of the entire clause? The lessons from eGMAT contracts this OA.


I hope my explanation will make sense. You're right in saying that a Verb-ing modifier when coming after a clause preceded by a comma will modify the preceding clause to provide either how or the result. But here what came after the clause is a Verb-ed modifier in which it modifies the preceding noun (times). We should consider that in parallelism we can't have a verb that is parallel to a modifier either Verb-ing or Verb-ed. (Differed) here is verb and not a Verb-ed modifier and you can know that from an article by e-gmat that explain the difference between |Verb-ed Forms – Verbs or Modifiers|

Also here we have a list that is connected by (and) so what come after (and) should have the same role as (Determined) in which both will modify times. Taking all that in mind what will be parallel to (determined) [from grammar point of view] as a Verb-ed modifier is another modifier and [from logic point of view] is something that make sense with times. Because (differing) is a Verb-ing modifier and makes sense with times, it's the ultimate fit here to modify times and parallel with (determined). So, (differing) is not modify the previous clause but it modifies times (Verb-ing modifiers can modify only nouns if they come directly after that now and here we have that case with little modification).

Hence the answer is E.
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Grieve, and they turn and go;
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Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 42

Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which   [#permalink] 18 Oct 2016, 09:45

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