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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 08:03
louisbharnabas wrote:
Dear Experts,

I have 2 concerns regarding option E: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

1. The presence of the comma after local times.

The sentence can be broken into 2 as follows:

a. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times. - This is ok.

b. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times. - The usage of comma + present participle modifies the entire clause as per MGMAT SC. This changes the intended meaning.

I feel the comma must be removed for this sentence to be correct.


2. The usage of present participle.

The sentence begins with "The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times" to state that the local times have been abolished whereas "differing from city to city" implies that the local times are differing in the present. The sentence seems to illogically suggest that the abolished (past) local times are differing from city to city (present).

Experts, please let me know if there are any errors in my reasoning?

Thanking you in advance.



Hello louisbharnabas,


Your query is pretty old, but I would still like to clarify your doubts. :)

Let's bring in the official sentence with the correct answer choice inserted in it: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.


1. Please note that the entire modifier determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city is placed between two commas. If were to remove this modifier from the sentence, then we would remove the comma before differed and the comma after city. Hence, there is no question of differing working as comma + verb-ing that modifies actions and not nouns.


2. The thing to bear in mind is that modifiers do not have ant tense of their own. It is only the verbs that have tense. The modifiers go by the tense used for the main verb of the sentence. Since in this official sentence, the main led is written in simple past tense, both the modifiers determined and differing takes the same tense.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 08:19
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Jat wrote:
Why do we need differing instead of differed as stated in OA : E?

Can an expert throw some light?
Thank you,
Jat




Hello Jat,


It is clear from the context of the official sentence that we need the verb-ed modifier determined to refer to the preceding noun local times.

Now we need another modifier for local times that can be parallel to determined. The word differed most definitely looks like an appropriate choice because both these word look similar in structure as they both end in "ed".

However, differed does NOT work as a verb in the context of this official sentence. It works as a simple past tense verb because the local times themselves differed from city to city. A verb can never be parallel to modifier. Hence, differed use of differed is incorrect in this sentence.

We have authored an article named ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers that shows hot to distinguish between a simple past tense verb and a verb-ed modifier. The article can be reviewed in the following link:https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

Since we need a noun modifier that can be parallel to determined, we need differing, a verb-ing modifier that correctly modifies the noun local times. Although determined and differing have different structures, they are perfectly parallel because they both act as a noun modifier. At e-GMAT, we call such lists with not similar looking parallel elements Imperfect List. We have an elaborate article on the topic that can be reviewed in the following link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/parallelism-imperfect-list-142791.html


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2017, 05:04
Vips0000 wrote:
shikhar wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Interesting question with lot of different explanations and answers !!!
Some expert please shed some light.


Eliminate answere choices first.
A is wrong because of two thing. use of 'which' - which is a relative pronoun. it can not be used for 'times' . Second, 'was' with 'times'.
B has the same 'was' issue, C has the same which issue.

in D and E, difference is between differed and differing at the end. Now, use of differed, a verb, at the end is wrong because it is not parallel to determined by, a participle.

Option E has perfect parallel components:
"The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times........ and to the establishment of regional times."
"determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian.... and differing from city to city"

Therefore, Ans E it is!

not sure what source is.. but poor quality question.


daagh : please help why differed in wrong here, and why we are preferring "differing".
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 08:11
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing - which should be used twice (2nd one after and) + local times should have plural verb
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed- local times should have plural verb
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing - which should be used twice (2nd one after and) for proper structure
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed - its seems that the sun reached and differed.. change in meaning
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing- Correct. the local times, determined by A and differing from city to city.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 20:16
I knew the reason that determined is a modifier and should be parallel with modifier not with verb .but I was not not able to guess "differed from" is a verb. How to check that ?
the test I used to check it is a verb is place" differed from" closer to local times and see if any action is done. in my understanding there was no action and just a modifier. Went with D and my answer was wrong.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 00:10
Important distinction between Past Participle and present participle.
Past participle is a passive adjective. ( Noun it modifies is the receiver of the action.)
Present Participle is an Active Adjective. (Noun it modifies is the doer of the action.)
Determined By when the sun reached .... ( Local times is passive)
Differing From....(local times is active)
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 17:12
daagh wrote:
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing----- local times which was determined --- SV mismatch
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed--- same as in A
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing ---- which were determined and diffeing –unparallel
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed--- determined is past participle and differed is a verb; The word differed as such can not make a participle
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing – right choice - differing, a present participle is the perfect foil for determined, a past participle.


@daagh-could you please elaborate on this.. how you identified differed is a participle and not past tense verb..
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2017, 02:16
r19 wrote:
I knew the reason that determined is a modifier and should be parallel with modifier not with verb .but I was not not able to guess "differed from" is a verb. How to check that ?
the test I used to check it is a verb is place" differed from" closer to local times and see if any action is done. in my understanding there was no action and just a modifier. Went with D and my answer was wrong.



Hello r19,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

In Choice D, the word differed is a verb because the local the local times themselves differed from city to city.

Let me present a simple example sentence to make the usage clear.

Local time differs in each of the six time zones in the Unites States.

My project differs from yours in its approach towards problem solving.


In both the above-mentioned sentences, differs acts as a verb.

Same is the usage of the word in simple past tense in Choice D. Hence, this choice stands incorrect because the modifier determined and the verb differed cannot be grammatically parallel.

Choice E rectifies this error by replacing the verb differed with the modifier differing.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2017, 09:03
topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing



In our sentence, which replaces times, and times is the object of determined, but subject of differed.

Somebody determined times... but.. times differed.

So, we do use ..ing form for actions that were ongoing;

Thumb rule for participle modifiers: .. ing form will modify a subject and ...ed form will modify an object.

So, our answer is E
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2018, 11:25
topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


Interesting question; it shows how past and present participle modifier can coexist without violating the parallelism rules.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2018, 01:02
egmat wrote:
louisbharnabas wrote:
Dear Experts,

I have 2 concerns regarding option E: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

1. The presence of the comma after local times.

The sentence can be broken into 2 as follows:

a. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times. - This is ok.

b. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times. - The usage of comma + present participle modifies the entire clause as per MGMAT SC. This changes the intended meaning.

I feel the comma must be removed for this sentence to be correct.


2. The usage of present participle.

The sentence begins with "The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times" to state that the local times have been abolished whereas "differing from city to city" implies that the local times are differing in the present. The sentence seems to illogically suggest that the abolished (past) local times are differing from city to city (present).

Experts, please let me know if there are any errors in my reasoning?

Thanking you in advance.



Hello louisbharnabas,


Your query is pretty old, but I would still like to clarify your doubts. :)

Let's bring in the official sentence with the correct answer choice inserted in it: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.


1. Please note that the entire modifier determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city is placed between two commas. If were to remove this modifier from the sentence, then we would remove the comma before differed and the comma after city. Hence, there is no question of differing working as comma + verb-ing that modifies actions and not nouns.


2. The thing to bear in mind is that modifiers do not have ant tense of their own. It is only the verbs that have tense. The modifiers go by the tense used for the main verb of the sentence. Since in this official sentence, the main led is written in simple past tense, both the modifiers determined and differing takes the same tense.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Dear Shraddha,

Thank you. It does help.

Regards,
Louis
Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which   [#permalink] 12 Feb 2018, 01:02

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