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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 20:11
egmat wrote:
sankey wrote:
can we say then that meaning superseds grammer ?

.........yes indeed, otherwise what is the point of language if we cant convey the right information!

Hi Sankey,
I am not sure why you think that "meaning supersedes grammar"? You are correct in saying that the purpose of language (including rules of grammar) is to express the information. Now per the rule of grammar, elements in the list should be parallel to one another. That is the precise rule that is being followed here. So the correct choice uses appropriate grammatical construction to express the meaning.
Thanks,
Payal


The above thread of expalanation has cleared some of my confusions. Thanks for such a detailed explanation.
I have one doubt that after comma "determined by" is modifying the subject "the growth of rail road" (and the meaning then looks absurd )not the local times as the modifier refers to the subject.
Please correct me here what i missed.
Thanks in advance
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2020, 06:45
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Mizar18 wrote:
Dear GMATNinja

Could you explain what is wrong with (C)?

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

I think that (C) and (E) pretty much convey the same meaning, but (C) is a little bit wordier using "which + were" + determing // + differing. Am I right?

Thanks!

There's a subtle difference in meaning too. Take another look at (C):

    "The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city."

Notice that "and" indicates a parallel construction. In this case, "differing" seems to be parallel to "determined." In a vacuum, that's fine -- they're both participles. But in this case, "determined" is part of a verb phrase, so the meaning we get is that the local times "were determined... and differing." The times "were differing?" That's an odd construction. Does that mean they're the same now? If that's the case, why not just write that they "were different?"

Now go back to (E):

    "The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city."

The big difference is that the verb "were" has been omitted, leaving us with the parallel construction, "determined and differing," both participles functioning as adjectives describing the "times." This is better, as we no longer have to grapple with the peculiar meaning of the verb phrase "were differing."

Compared to (C), (E)'s parallel construction produces a clearer, more logical meaning -- in addition to being more concise -- so (E) is our winner.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2020, 09:12
Hi Experts, daagh egmat VeritasKarishma

I have a car, which is red and old.

Here, "which is" is applicable to both a) red
b) old


Why cant option (C) be interpreted in a similar way. Please let me know why the following interpretation is invalid.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were a) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and b) differing from city to city,, and to the establishment of regional times.

So, local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
and local times, which were differing from city to city,
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2020, 04:08
coreyander wrote:
Hi Experts, daagh egmat VeritasKarishma

I have a car, which is red and old.

Here, "which is" is applicable to both a) red
b) old


Why cant option (C) be interpreted in a similar way. Please let me know why the following interpretation is invalid.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were a) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and b) differing from city to city,, and to the establishment of regional times.

So, local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
and local times, which were differing from city to city,


"were determined" is a past tense verb in passive.
You will need to give the verb in case you put another clause after 'and'.

...which were determined .. and were different ...

Also "were differing" would mean we are using past continuous tense which makes no sense.

You need to ensure that both elements are in parallel. So "determined by ..." and "differing from ..." are modifiers for local times and are parallel.
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2020, 05:06
egmat wrote:
Hi guys,
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Image

• The growth of the railroads led to
o the abolition of local times, and
o the establishment of regional times.
• Two characteristics of local times have been mentioned in the sentence:
o they were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian, and
they differed from city to city.

Image

1. Singular verb “was” does not agree in number with plural subject “local times”. SV must agree in number error.

2. Also “was” seem to be the verb for “abolition of local times”, meaning abolition was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian. This is certainly not the intended logical meaning of the sentence. Meaning error.

3. The two characteristics of “local times” must be parallel to each other. Here, “which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian” (a clause) is not parallel to “differing from city to city” ( a verb-ed modifier phrase). Parallelism error.

POE:

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Errors discussed above.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed: Incorrect. Same SV number agreement and meaning errors as in A.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in A.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Correct. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier phrase) is parallel to “differing from city to city” (a verb-ing modifier phrase). Both the modifiers are correctly presenting the characteristics of “local times”. Refer to OG 12#42 to see how verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers can be parallel to each other.

Image

1. SV pair must always agree in number.
2. SV pair must always make sense together.
3. In a list of parallelism, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:
1. Level 1 - SV - Agree in Number (This concept features in Level 1 Preview Concepts that are available for free. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 2 - SV - Make Sense
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify and Correct
4. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

You can also review our article on this topic by clicking on the following link:
http://gmatclub.com/forum/verb-ed-verb- ... 26923.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
GMAT Club Bot
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which   [#permalink] 05 Aug 2020, 05:06

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