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An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a

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An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: CR-neurons [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2008, 10:44
IMO C.
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(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning- No information is given about other kinds of reasoning. So, one cannot do a better comparison with something that is not given.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well- We are not much concerned about the satisfaction of the people.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections- This is true. Since "lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments", it is quite possible that they have more energy efficient neurons.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined - This actually contradicts to what is being stated. "The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments". Anyone who completes the design is successful.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population- The lower energy expenditure of the athletes will not guarranty a sucessful completion with lower expenditure of energy by neurons. Out of scope.

Hence C. What is OA?
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New post 08 Aug 2008, 18:18
leonidas wrote:
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning- No information is given about other kinds of reasoning. So, one cannot do a better comparison with something that is not given.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well- We are not much concerned about the satisfaction of the people.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections- This is true. Since "lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments", it is quite possible that they have more energy efficient neurons.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined - This actually contradicts to what is being stated. "The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments". Anyone who completes the design is successful.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population- The lower energy expenditure of the athletes will not guarranty a sucessful completion with lower expenditure of energy by neurons. Out of scope.

Hence C. What is OA?

OA is C
good explanation.
I marked A.Actually could not relate enery efficient term in C
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Re: CR-neurons [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2008, 19:14
spriya wrote:
An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.


IMO C)
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spriya,

"I marked A.Actually could not relate enery efficient term in C "

I miss these details too sometimes. The way I look at arguments is:
1) Try to understand the stem first.
2) Parse through the Premise and conclusion. Sometimes, the conclusion is not very obvious but burried somewhere in the stem. If you think, you cannot identify it (worst case), its ok as you will try to understand the argument once you read through the answer choices sometimes.
3) Try to think of an answer in your mind (before you look for one), atleast practice this way initially until you have a high hit rate.
4) Read through the answer choices and see if it matches what you are looked for. This may not work always. The other trick is to simultaneouly, use POE (Process of Elimination) technique.

I believe, that POE works very well with CR; atleast, you can narrow down the answer choices to two. Try this out on few problems and see if it works.....

Good luck cracking arguments........... :)
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New post 08 Aug 2008, 19:49
leonidas wrote:
spriya,

"I marked A.Actually could not relate enery efficient term in C "

I miss these details too sometimes. The way I look at arguments is:
1) Try to understand the stem first.
2) Parse through the Premise and conclusion. Sometimes, the conclusion is not very obvious but burried somewhere in the stem. If you think, you cannot identify it (worst case), its ok as you will try to understand the argument once you read through the answer choices sometimes.
3) Try to think of an answer in your mind (before you look for one), atleast practice this way initially until you have a high hit rate.
4) Read through the answer choices and see if it matches what you are looked for. This may not work always. The other trick is to simultaneouly, use POE (Process of Elimination) technique.

I believe, that POE works very well with CR; atleast, you can narrow down the answer choices to two. Try this out on few problems and see if it works.....

Good luck cracking arguments........... :)

:-D great .thanks for the tips
+1 for you
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spriya wrote:
An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.


Responding to a pm:

It is a type of a strengthen question.

"Which hypotheses accounts for the findings?"
Another way of saying it is "which of the following, if true, supports the findings of the experiment" or "which of the following, if true, leads to the findings of the experiment"

If people who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections, they will expend lowest amount of energy.
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2012, 08:11
First of all, I personally think this is more of a Paradox problem since we are trying to account for a surprising finding. We have to explain the surprising observation.

Secondly, I would like to add to leonidas's inputs. He has provided some great inputs, especially about Pre-thinking the answer. Prethinking is a very effective technique, however it requires conscious effort and involves a learning curve (for most). When you start prethinking, start with assumption questions. Moreover, do not worry about timing initially (for the first 15 questions) because you will take more time initially.

I do a 2 hr free session on Prethinking once a month. We have the recording of the last session on our portal. Register for a free account and then watch the help video below to access the recording of the session.

http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=851

Regards,

Rajat Sadana
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2012, 01:27
spriya wrote:
An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.


Please delete the portion of answer choice (E) as shown above. This portion is not in OG 12 or 13. It is a strong contender after your addition. Thanks
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2013, 05:25
spriya wrote:
An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.


When I answered this question, I thought Choice C is out of Scope as Choice C speaks about Neural Connections and passage is all about lowest expenditure of energy in neurons.
How these terms are related, and are we supposed to know the link between these two? Please help or suggest other way to reach to Official answer.

Thanks
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2013, 06:34
imhimanshu wrote:

When I answered this question, I thought Choice C is out of Scope as Choice C speaks about Neural Connections and passage is all about lowest expenditure of energy in neurons.
How these terms are related, and are we supposed to know the link between these two? Please help or suggest other way to reach to Official answer.

Thanks
H


Actually, it's something people are usually expected to know - there are neurons in the brain which are connected with each other and the brain functions by sending signals over these neural connections.
Don't worry if this was not intuitive - GMAT doesn't test your general awareness. This kind of disconnect will not be there in an actual GMAT question. Even if a question with some bias does get into the question bank, it is filtered out if they observe that people of that or higher level are striking out on it.
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2013, 07:34
With all due respect to the experts :) Isn't this a must be true question?? IMO it in someway asks what hypotheses can best be drawn from the above stimulus, moreover it doesn't have a conclusion just plain facts...
Please correct me if I am wrong
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New post 11 Mar 2013, 00:04
ratinarace wrote:
With all due respect to the experts :) Isn't this a must be true question?? IMO it in someway asks what hypotheses can best be drawn from the above stimulus, moreover it doesn't have a conclusion just plain facts...
Please correct me if I am wrong


It might seem so on first reading but actually it is not a 'must be true' question i.e. inference/conclusion question. In a 'must be true' question, given that the argument is true, you should be able to infer the answer choice without a doubt.
This question asks you for the hypothesis that best supports the findings of the experiment. Mind you, the given hypothesis cannot be inferred without a doubt from the argument. There could be many reasons for the low expenditure of energy. e.g. perhaps subjects who did well have practiced over the years and can easily 'see' how the puzzle pieces will fit and hence the need to expend less energy. We cannot say that they MUST have more energy-efficient neural connections.
But given this hypothesis, i.e. they have more energy-efficient neural connections, findings of the experiment make more sense.
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2013, 08:31
Its an Explain Question. Correct. ?

VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
ratinarace wrote:
With all due respect to the experts :) Isn't this a must be true question?? IMO it in someway asks what hypotheses can best be drawn from the above stimulus, moreover it doesn't have a conclusion just plain facts...
Please correct me if I am wrong


It might seem so on first reading but actually it is not a 'must be true' question i.e. inference/conclusion question. In a 'must be true' question, given that the argument is true, you should be able to infer the answer choice without a doubt.
This question asks you for the hypothesis that best supports the findings of the experiment. Mind you, the given hypothesis cannot be inferred without a doubt from the argument. There could be many reasons for the low expenditure of energy. e.g. perhaps subjects who did well have practiced over the years and can easily 'see' how the puzzle pieces will fit and hence the need to expend less energy. We cannot say that they MUST have more energy-efficient neural connections.
But given this hypothesis, i.e. they have more energy-efficient neural connections, findings of the experiment make more sense.

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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2013, 23:39
Hi,

I'm trying to understand the question stem in this question more clearly. I've attempted this question before and I did land up with C as the answer. But when I was going through this question again, on second thoughts, I have a doubt on the interpretation of the question stem.

Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?

As per my understanding, there's a hypotheses... then there's a study/experiment to prove the hypotheses and they have received surprising results.

Surprising result: Successful performance----> lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain

Question: What can be the hypotheses possibly be?

The fact that the findings are surprising means that the hypotheses did not expect this result. In this case, the hypotheses must've been opposite or not similar to the result.

This is why I thought the answer must've been D which somewhat states the opposite.

While I understand that the answer is C because it explains why the results have taken place, I fail to understand how is this the answer to my question stem? i.e. The question stem doesn't seem to be asking why the result took place. It asks what the hypotheses could've been before the study.

It would be great if the experts could answer my doubt at the earliest... as I have my exam in 4 days!

Thanks.
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Chandni170 wrote:
The question stem doesn't seem to be asking why the result took place. It asks what the hypotheses could've been before the study.



That's not correct.

Question stem: Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?

It clearly asks you for the hypothesis that best explains the actual results.


Also, the sequence may be: Hypothesis, then experiment, then surprise, then updated hypothesis.

They are asking you for the updated hypothesis since they say that which hypothesis best accounts for the findings - i.e. accounts for the actual results of the experiment.
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2015, 07:45
Picked A, but could later easily understand why it was wrong.

(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning. [ this is a general effect. then according to this energy expended by neurons in all subjects must be low, why especially in those who performed most successfully?? (from beatthegmat)

(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections I don't like this part, GMAT says, ok, you don't need a special knowledge, BUT wants us to know a bit more than stated in the argument.... So they can argument everything they want with such an instrument......
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Re: An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2016, 06:04
spriya wrote:
An experiment was done in which human subjects recognize a pattern within a matrix of abstract designs and then select another design that completes that pattern. The results of the experiment were surprising. The lowest expenditure of energy in neurons in the brain was found in those subjects who performed most successfully in the experiments.
Which of the following hypotheses best accounts for the findings of the experiment?
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.
(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.
(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.
(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.
(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.



Situation-

Human subjects are asked to recognize a pattern and perform the task to complete the pattern.
But the results were surprising.Why ? Because the ones who succeeded in doing the task of pattern recognition and completion had the lowest energy expenditure of neurons in brain.

Evaluation-

We have to account for the surprising results of the experiment.
We have to provide a reason for the finding.Hence, we have to provide a strengthener option and also resolve the surprising finding.
We have to find the WHY?

POE-
(A) The neurons of the brain react less when a subject is trying to recognize patterns than when the subject is doing other kinds of reasoning.

This option applies to both performed well as well to those who did not perform well.

(B) Those who performed best in the experiment experienced more satisfaction when working with abstract patterns than did those who performed less well.

Satisfaction? what? What has satisfaction got to do with the finding?We have nothing that would confirm that more satisfaction results in less energy consumption.

(C) People who are better at abstract pattern recognition have more energy-efficient neural connections.

This information accounts for the finding.It gives additional information that the ones who do well on pattern recognition are blessed with efficient neural coonections.Efficient neural connections help save energy!


(D) The energy expenditure of the subjects brains increases when a design that completes the initially recognized pattern is determined.

We are interested in overall energy consumption.Also if this option were true than it would mean that the ones who are successful may have used more energy than the ones who could not recognize and complete the pattern.

(E) The task of completing a given design is more capably performed by athletes, whose energy expenditure is lower when they are at rest than is that of the general population.

The issue at hand is why the energy used by the successful ones is less than the energy used by the ones not successful.The athletes may have efficient neural networks BUT we want to know WHY do they have efficient networks.



Hope the above helps.
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