GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

 It is currently 03 Jun 2020, 21:43

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 09 May 2017
Posts: 224
Location: Iran (Islamic Republic of)
GMAT 1: 430 Q39 V12
Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 14 Oct 2019, 02:50
1
3
Question 1
00:00

based on 135 sessions

45% (03:11) correct 55% (03:02) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00

based on 162 sessions

38% (01:31) correct 62% (01:56) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00

based on 138 sessions

43% (01:10) correct 57% (01:22) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00

based on 132 sessions

42% (01:04) correct 58% (00:58) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00

based on 126 sessions

56% (00:27) correct 44% (00:31) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00

based on 132 sessions

42% (00:39) correct 58% (00:45) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 262, Date : 11-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic (warm-blooded) species for the regulation of body temperature, the other being innate (reflexive) mechanisms of heat production and heat loss. Human beings rely primarily on the first to provide a hospitable thermal microclimate for themselves, in which the transfer of heat between the body and the environment is accomplished with minimal involvement of innate mechanisms of heat production and loss. Thermoregulatory behavior anticipates hyperthermia, and the organism adjusts its behavior to avoid becoming hyperthermic: it removes layers of clothing, it goes for a cool swim, etc. The organism can also respond to changes in the temperature of the body core, as is the case during exercise; but such responses result from the direct stimulation of thermoreceptors distributed widely within the central nervous system, and the ability of these mechanisms to help the organism adjust to gross changes in its environment is limited.

Until recently it was assumed that organisms respond to microwave radiation in the same way that they respond to temperature changes caused by other forms of radiation. After all, the argument runs, microwaves are radiation and heat body tissues. This theory ignores the fact that the stimulus to a behavioral response is normally a temperature change that occurs at the surface of the organism. The thermoreceptors that prompt behavioral changes are located within the first millimeter of the skin’s surface, but the energy of a microwave field may be selectively deposited in deep tissues, effectively bypassing these thermoreceptors, particularly if the field is at near resonant frequencies. The resulting temperature profile may well be a kind of reverse thermal gradient in which the deep tissues are warmed more than those of the surface. Since the heat is not conducted outward to the surface to stimulate the appropriate receptors, the organism does not “appreciate” this stimulation in the same way that it “appreciates” heating and cooling of the skin. In theory, the internal organs of a human being or an animal could be quite literally cooked well-done before the animal even realizes that the balance of its thermomicroclimate has been disturbed.

Until a few years ago, microwave irradiations at equivalent plane-wave power densities of about 100 mW/cm2 were considered unequivocally to produce “thermal” effects; irradiations within the range of 10 to 100 mW/cm2 might or might not produce “thermal” effects; while effects observed at power densities below 10 mW/cm2 were assumed to be “nonthermal” in nature. Experiments have shown this to be an oversimplification, and a recent report suggests that fields as weak as 1 mW/cm2 can be thermogenic. When the heat generated in the tissues by an imposed radio frequency (plus the heat generated by metabolism) exceeds the heat-loss capabilities of the organism, the thermoregulatory system has been compromised. Yet surprisingly, not long ago, an increase in the internal body temperature was regarded merely as “evidence” of a thermal effect.

1. The author is primarily concerned with

A. Showing that behavior is a more effective way of controlling bodily temperature than innate mechanisms
B. Criticizing researchers who will not discard their theories about the effects of microwave radiation on organisms
C. Demonstrating that effects of microwave radiation are different from those of other forms of radiation
D. Analyzing the mechanism by which an organism maintains its bodily temperature in a changing thermal environment
E. Discussing the importance of thermoreceptors in the control of the internal temperature of an organism

2. The author makes which of the following points about innate mechanisms for heat production?

1. They are governed by thermoreceptors inside the body of the organism rather than at the surface.
2. They are a less effective means of compensating for gross changes in temperature than behavioral strategies.
3. They are not affected by microwave radiation.

A. I only
B. I and II only
C. I and III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

3. Which of the following would be the most logical topic for the author to take up in the paragraph following the final paragraph of the selection?

A. A suggestion for new research to be done on the effects of microwaves on animals and human beings
B. An analysis of the differences between microwave radiation
C. A proposal that the use of microwave radiation be prohibited because it is dangerous
D. A survey of the literature on the effects of microwave radiation on human beings
E. A discussion of the strategies used by various species to control hyperthermia

4. The author implies that the proponents of the theory that microwave radiation acts on organisms in the same way as other forms of radiation based their conclusions primarily on

A. Laboratory research
B. Unfounded assumption
C. Control group surveys
D. Deductive reasoning
E. Causal investigation

5. The tone of the passage can best be described as

A. Genial and conversational
B. Alarmed and disparaging
C. Facetious and cynical
D. Scholarly and noncommittal
E. Scholarly and concerned

6. The author is primarily concerned with

A. Pointing out weaknesses in a popular scientific theory
B. Developing a hypothesis to explain a scientific phenomenon
C. Reporting on new research on the effects of microwave radiation
D. Criticizing the research methods of earlier investigators
E. Clarifying ambiguities in the terminology used to describe a phenomenon

Source: 1000 RC
Difficulty Level: 700

_________________

Originally posted by 09173140521 on 09 Aug 2019, 20:15.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 14 Oct 2019, 02:50, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (964).
CR Forum Moderator
Joined: 25 Apr 2018
Posts: 629
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V34
Re: Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2019, 02:17
please post OE for questions 2 and 3
Intern
Joined: 05 Mar 2019
Posts: 1
Re: Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

11 Sep 2019, 17:58
can some one please discuss Q50 and Q6
Manager
Joined: 16 Jan 2020
Posts: 67
Re: Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

12 Mar 2020, 00:55
2
1. The author is primarily concerned with

A. Showing that behavior is a more effective way of controlling bodily temperature than innate mechanisms.
Wrong. This was mentioned only in paragraph 1.

B. Criticizing researchers who will not discard their theories about the effects of microwave radiation on organisms
Wrong. The theory was being criticized and not the researchers.

C. Demonstrating that effects of microwave radiation are different from those of other forms of radiation
Correct.

D. Analyzing the mechanism by which an organism maintains its bodily temperature in a changing thermal environment
Wrong. It has been stated that how organisms maintain its bodily temperature but has not been analyzed.

E. Discussing the importance of thermoreceptors in the control of the internal temperature of an organism
Wrong. Was mentioned in one or two lines only.

2. The author makes which of the following points about innate mechanisms for heat production?

1. They are governed by thermoreceptors inside the body of the organism rather than at the surface.
"but such responses result from the direct stimulation of thermoreceptors distributed widely within the central nervous system"

2. They are a less effective means of compensating for gross changes in temperature than behavioral strategies.
"Since the heat is not conducted outward to the surface to stimulate the appropriate receptors, the organism does not “appreciate”
this stimulation in the same way that it “appreciates” heating and cooling of the skin."

3. They are not affected by microwave radiation.

3. Which of the following would be the most logical topic for the author to take up in the paragraph following the final paragraph of the selection?

A. A suggestion for new research to be done on the effects of microwaves on animals and human beings
Correct. In the last paragraph the author is also discussing the effects of microwave radiations on organisms but with limited results.

B. An analysis of the differences between microwave radiation
Wrong. The paragraph is not talking about microwave radiations but it's effects on organisms and how does it affect them.

C. A proposal that the use of microwave radiation be prohibited because it is dangerous
Wrong. No such information has been mentioned in the earlier paragraphs.

D. A survey of the literature on the effects of microwave radiation on human beings
Wrong. This option is just mentioning human beings and not animals.

E. A discussion of the strategies used by various species to control hypothermia
Wrong. This has already been mentioned in the first paragraph.

4. The author implies that the proponents of the theory that microwave radiation acts on organisms in the same way as other forms of radiation based their conclusions primarily on

A. Laboratory research
Wrong. It can't be laboratory research as it has nothing to do with the chemicals.

B. Unfounded assumption
Right. "below 10 mW/cm2 were assumed to be “nonthermal” in nature."

C. Control group surveys
Wrong. This is not a survey but an expriment.

D. Deductive reasoning
Wrong. The author has not tried explain any reasons for the presented experiment results or theory.

E. Causal investigation
Wrong. It was not a casual investigation but a serious one.

5. The tone of the passage can best be described as

A. Genial and conversational
Wrong. The passage has a serious tone and it is not written in a funny manner or in a dialogue format.

B. Alarmed and disparaging
Wrong. The author did not raise any alarm or expressed his thoughts that something is of little worth.

C. Facetious and cynical
Wrong. Cynical is a wrong word here as the there is nothing to be distrusting about the whole topic. They are stating the facts.

D. Scholarly and noncommittal
Wrong. The author did present his opinions in between.

E. Scholarly and concerned
Scholarly is a correct word and the author is expressing his concern by pointing out the weakness in the scientific theory.

6. The author is primarily concerned with

A. Pointing out weaknesses in a popular scientific theory
Correct. A popular scientific theory which has been accepted by everyone has few loopholes explained by the author.

B. Developing a hypothesis to explain a scientific phenomenon
Wrong. No hypothesis has been developed. A scientific theory is already presented.

C. Reporting on new research on the effects of microwave radiation
Wrong. Author did express his own opinion.

D. Criticizing the research methods of earlier investigators
Wrong. We are not talking about investigators here but the theory.

E. Clarifying ambiguities in the terminology used to describe a phenomenon
Wrong. The terminologies stated were correct.
Re: Behavior is one of two general responses available to endothermic   [#permalink] 12 Mar 2020, 00:55