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# M. Norton Wise's examination of the calorimeter, a machine invented in

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Re: M. Norton Wise's examination of the calorimeter, a machine invented in [#permalink]
Can all the answers be provided for this ?
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Re: M. Norton Wise's examination of the calorimeter, a machine invented in [#permalink]
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Pratheek95 wrote:
Can all the answers be provided for this ?

Official Explanation

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

Explanation

We have just stated the answer to this question (before looking at it) in our summary of the passage. Namely: the author explains Wise's theory through an example, the calorimeter, and a comparison, with Kuhn. Answer choices (A) and (D) are out for expressing too much opinion with "advocate" and "challenge."

Choices (B) and (E) make the invention the focal point of the passage in itself, whereas it occupies the stage only to "elucidate" Wise's theory. We are left with (C). Is (C) defect-free? We may wonder whether the author surely has conveyed that Wise's theory is "lesser-known." We have some support for this notion in the fact that Kuhn's theory is "popularly understood" and that "we are typically more inclined to view a new technological invention in the terms of Kuhn". Evidently Kuhn's theory is more popular and Wise's is less popular.

2. Which of the following statements about the calorimeter is supported by information in the passage?

Explanation

In this question, we can keep in mind that the calorimeter was a kind of "cultural mediator," according Wise's theory and to the passage. That may rule out or rule in answer choices. Choices (A) and (B) ignore or contradict the idea of mediation, so they are out.

Choice (C), though quite broad, is correct and is an assumption of Wise's theory--technology plays a role "in society outside of the applications for which it has been developed". So (C) stays in.

Choice (D) describes the calorimeter using Kuhn's theory, not Wise's, and the passage doesn't support that.

Choice (E) is similar to Choice (C), so we are left with (C) and (E). One has an objective fault; which is it? A clue is expressed in the fact that (E) says pretty much what (C) says, plus a bit more, and they can't both be flawed, so the flaw must reside in the extra bit of something that (E) expresses. Indeed, the error with (E) is that it implies that "the circumstances under which it was invented" were what made the calorimeter important. But this isn't what the passage claims, because the passage claims that all technology acts as a cultural mediator. The calorimeter happens to be a vivid example for the purpose of explaining this point. Choice (E) expresses something contrary to that point, so it's out.

3. Which of the following most likely expresses Wise's opinion of Kuhn's theory?

Explanation

This question seemingly asks us to put words in Wise's mouth, only we will not have to do that, because we will attribute a view to Wise based exactly on what the passage has told us. As we summarized earlier, Kuhn describes revolution, while Wise describes mediation. So Wise's criticism of Kuhn theory would be that it describes some things as revolutions that are better described as mediation. Simple enough. Let's see where that appears in the answer choices.

Both (B) and (D) are in the ballpark of this prediction. Choice (B) is accurate, because Kuhn's theory expressions that a technology "invariably supports or challenges," while in Wise's theory the technology can mediate differences.

Choice (D) is partly nonsensical, because "paradigm shifts" are an idea in Kuhn's theory and not in Wise's; Wise hasn't done any explaining of paradigm shifts and, since the paradigm shift is a concept that expresses Kuhn's inherently not-mediating idea, it can't be explained in terms of mediation. So (D) is out. So we have (B) as our answer, but to review the other choices:

(A) is inconsistent, because Wise also uses metaphor. In choice (C), what the "wider significance" is is exactly the point on which Kuhn and Wise differ.

Choice (E) is unsupported, as there is no discussion of the impact on the minds of scientists; for example, we don't know whether the calorimeter helped the two scientists personally understand each other better.

For question #4 click on below link

https://gmatclub.com/forum/m-norton-wis ... l#p2365943

5. If Wise's theory were widely accepted, people would tend to view a new invention as a symbol of

Explanation

This slightly metaphorical question hammers on the same point as some of the prior questions, which is whether we have understood the basic point of Wise's theory, mediation. Choices (A), (C) and (E) are all interpretations counter to Wise and in line with Kuhn.

Choice (D) is interesting but apart from what has been stated in the passage; technology still answers questions in Wise's theory and doesn't ask them. The answer expresses "mediation."

6. M. Norton Wise most likely chose the example of the calorimeter to elucidate his theory primarily because

Explanation

This question gives us another mind-reading exercise, one that, even more than others, might sound at first like it compels us to understand the psychology of M. Norton Wise. We must remind ourselves that, even if we don't know the truth about the psychology of Wise, the answer choices have objective differences. This question is slightly more difficult in that the correct answer is not compelled by the need to avoid contradicting the passage as directly as in other questions.

Choices (A) and (B) both have some degree of plausibility, because they describe factors that would aid Wise in the act of explaining. So we can come back to those.

Choices (C) and (E) both imply unsupported claims; we have no knowledge that the calorimeter was a turning point in chemistry and physics, or that Kuhn's theory easily can explain the calorimeter. So those two are out.

Choice (D) has a certain perfection: it says, in a way, that Wise choose the example of the calorimeter to explain his theory because the calorimeter was a fitting example. We can see that (D) is superior to (A) and (B) through a kind of negation test. Suppose we wanted to contend that the example of the calorimeter did not establish Wise's theory? Choice (D), if negated, would support our contention: the calorimeter, in fact, was not developed by two scientists with differences in view, for whatever reason. Such a fact would damage Wise's explanation and bolster our contention. (A) and (B) have no such material connection to Wise's argument.

7. According to the author, how does calorimeter's "concrete existence" mentioned in the highlighted text resolve tension between two scientific fields?

Explanation

This question references a specific line of the passage, which says that the calorimeter "provided a common ground to the two fields in its own concrete existence and quantitative measure, if not entirely in concept". In other words, the concepts behind it was different in the two fields, but the device itself, the actual physical thing, was shared by both fields. Choices (A) and (D) both are in the vicinity of this notion (a single physical device uniting different ideas). The idea that the calorimeter was a symbol is somewhat opposite to this idea and is not supported by the passage, so (C) and (E) are out.

Choice (B) is summarizing the wrong thing, "quantitative measure," not "concrete existence," so it's out. Between (A) and (D), choice (A) more accurately expresses the passage. The mediation that is occurring is one of "abstract ideas"--in this case, "chemical substances" and "forces" -not scientists who don't want to cooperate. The personal differences of L&L are significant primarily in that they highlight the two scientists' different views of the world, not because those differences are the subject of the mediation Wise is describing.

Therefore, the correct answer is (A).

8. Which of the following statements about Wise's theory of technology in society can be inferred from information in the passage?

Explanation

This question asks us for an inference, so the correct answer will be required logically by the passage, whether or not it is directly stated. We can evaluate individually whether each statement is required; if necessary, we can try negating it and seeing whether a contradiction with the passage is generated in doing so.

Choice (A) is hardly required by the passage; we never hear anything about the reasons for which Wise developed his theory, and we can image other reasons behind the theory without generating the slightest contradiction. (A) is out.

Choice (B) makes a claim that is more in line with Wise's theory and which has a whiff of plausibility, and/but which ventures into new territory--namely, what should be "explained to the public." Is this implied by the passage? The passage, in fact, grants that Kuhn's theory is better understood, and never makes the claim that the public misunderstands technology for this reason. So we can negate the claim in (B) without generating any inconsistency with the passage. (B) is out.

Choice (C) makes a claim that is irrelevant to the example of the calorimeter, but which is supported by the more general statements about technology in the passage. For example, "According to Wise's theory...technologies act as cultural mediators, reconciling differences among different fields of thought and study". Note that the differences are not among individuals in this summary statement, but rather among fields. The passage permits, and appears to require, that different fields will have their differences even when the inventors of a particular technology are themselves of one mind. Choice (C), therefore, will be the correct answer, though we will review choices (D) and (E).

Choice (D) makes a fairly ambitious and unsupported claim. We know essentially nothing about what Wise thinks of practical applications of the technologies mentioned in the passage--the calorimeter, the television, and the fiberoptic cable. The claim is unsupported and probably implausible. Furthermore, we can negate this statement and generate no contradiction with Wise's theory or with the passage. So (D) is out.

Choice (E) claims that Wise's theory is not universally true of technologies. In a sense, (E) is the opposite of (C), and (E) directly contradicts the statement as discussed in the context of choice (C). So, far from being necessarily true based on the passage, it is necessarily false, given the passage. So (E) is out.

Hope it helps
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Re: M. Norton Wise's examination of the calorimeter, a machine invented in [#permalink]
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Re: M. Norton Wise's examination of the calorimeter, a machine invented in [#permalink]
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