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Re: Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was [#permalink]
Thanks SajjadAhmad for the explanation
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Re: Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was [#permalink]
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Hovkial wrote:
Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was asked to estimate what proportion of all automobiles registered in the nation are the same make as the subject’s car. The estimate of nearly every subject has been significantly higher than the actual national statistic for the make of that subject’s car. I hypothesize that certain makes of car are more common in some regions of the nation than in other regions; obviously, that would lead many people to overestimate how common their make of car is nationally. That is precisely the result found in this experiment, so certain makes of car must indeed be more common in some areas of the nation than in others.

Which one of the following most accurately expresses a reasoning flaw in the researcher’s argument?

(A) The argument fails to estimate the likelihood that most subjects in the experiment did not know the actual statistics about how common their make of car is nationwide.

(B) The argument treats a result that supports a hypothesis as a result that proves a hypothesis.

(C) The argument fails to take into account the possibility that the subject pool may come from a wide variety of geographical regions.

(D) The argument attempts to draw its main conclusion from a set of premises that are mutually contradictory.

(E) The argument applies a statistical generalization to a particular case to which it was not intended to apply.



CR Breakdown:
Each subject owns a car --> Estimated nationwide number of cars of the same model as their own ---> everyone estimated a higher (than actual) number
the author tries to explain the result with a hypothesize: more cars of same make ina particular region ---> hence subjects overestimated the nationwide number based on regional number
The author tries to base his main conclusion on this result .

(A) The author is not making any conclusion based on the actual numbers of results so this is useless. This could have been our answer if the author used absolute numbers to make his conclusion. But he has just used the overall result trend.

(B) Correct, the Author justified the result from his hypothesis first as an attempt to explain the result and then jumps to conclude the same hypothesis from the same result

(C) This actually supports our hypothesis, even though the subjects came from different geographical areas they still estimated higher numbers, so this proves that hypothesis must be true across all geographies

(D) There is no contradiction in the premise.

(E) The case and the statistical generalization are related to one another and there is no particular separate case here.


Hope this helps,
I tried to explain here because although I got the answer correct, I was not able to pinpoint why other choices were exactly wrong and this is my attempt to understand and dissect the question better.
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Re: Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was [#permalink]
Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was asked to estimate what proportion of all automobiles registered in the nation are the same make as the subject’s car. The estimate of nearly every subject has been significantly higher than the actual national statistic for the make of that subject’s car. I hypothesize that certain makes of car are more common in some regions of the nation than in other regions; obviously, that would lead many people to overestimate how common their make of car is nationally. That is precisely the result found in this experiment, so certain makes of car must indeed be more common in some areas of the nation than in others.

Which one of the following most accurately expresses a reasoning flaw in the researcher’s argument?

(A) The argument fails to estimate the likelihood that most subjects in the experiment did not know the actual statistics about how common their make of car is nationwide. - WRONG. Subjects knowing about the statistics or not is irrelevant. In fact, had they known the conclusion would have been strengthened by this choice.

(B) The argument treats a result that supports a hypothesis as a result that proves a hypothesis. - CORRECT. The passage just assumes something and concludes the assumption it self. It goes round and round.

(C) The argument fails to take into account the possibility that the subject pool may come from a wide variety of geographical regions. - WRONG. It must be like that but does it impact the conclusion. No.

(D) The argument attempts to draw its main conclusion from a set of premises that are mutually contradictory. - WRONG. The logic applied is not contradictory instead it support each other - evidence/basis and conclusion.

(E) The argument applies a statistical generalization to a particular case to which it was not intended to apply. - WRONG. Nowhere such a generalisation is identifiable.

Answer B.
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Re: Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was [#permalink]
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Researcher: Each subject in this experiment owns one car, and was [#permalink]
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