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Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc

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Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 290, Date : 25-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstances that encouraged the emergence of feminist movements, have thoroughly investigated the Lim mid-nineteenth-century American economic and social conditions that affected the status of women. These historians, however, have analyzed less fully the development of specifically feminist ideas and activities during the same period. Furthermore, the ideological origins of feminism in the United States have been obscured because, even when historians did take into account those feminist ideas and activities occurring within the United States, they failed to recognize that feminism was then a truly international movement actually centered in Europe. American feminist activists who have been described as "solitary" and "individual theorists" were in reality connected to a movement—utopian socialism—which was already popularizing feminist ideas in Europe during the two decades that culminated in the first women's rights conference held at Seneca Falls. New York. in 1848. Thus, a complete understanding of the origins and development of nineteenth-century feminism in the United States requires that the geographical focus be widened to include Europe and that the detailed study already made of social conditions be expanded to include the ideological development of feminism.

The earliest and most popular of the utopian socialists were the Saint-Simonians. The specifically feminist part of Saint-Simonianism has, however, been less studied than the group's contribution to early socialism. This is regrettable on two counts. By 1832 feminism was the central concern of Saint-Simonianism and entirely absorbed its adherents' energy; hence, by ignoring its feminism, European historians have misunderstood Saint-Simonianism. Moreover, since many feminist ideas can be traced to Saint-Simonianism, European historians' appreciation of later feminism in France and the United States remained limited. Saint-Simon's followers, many of whom were women, based their feminism on an interpretation of his project to reorganize the globe by replacing brute force with the rule of spiritual powers. The new world order would be ruled together by a male, to represent reflection, and a female, to represent sentiment. This complementarity reflects the fact that, while the Saint-Simonians did not reject the belief that there were innate differences between men and women, they nevertheless foresaw an equally important social and political role for both sexes in their utopia.

Only a few Saint-Simonians opposed a definition of sexual equality based on gender distinction. This minority believed that individuals of both sexes were born similar in capacity and character, and they ascribed male-female differences to socialization and education. In, The envisioned result of both currents of thought, however, was that women would enter public life in the new age and that sexual equality would reward men as well as women with an improved way of life.

Spoiler: :: OA
A

1. It can be inferred that the author considers those historians who describe early feminists in the United States as "solitary" to be

(A) insufficiently familiar with the international origins of nineteenth-century American feminist thought
(B) overly concerned with the regional diversity of feminist ideas in the period before 1848
(C) not focused narrowly enough in their geographical scope
(D) insufficiently aware of the ideological consequences of the Seneca Falls conference
(E) insufficiently concerned with the social conditions out of which feminism developed


Spoiler: :: OA
D

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the Seneca Falls conference on women's rights?

(A) It was primarily a product of nineteenth-century Saint-Simonian feminist thought.
(B) It was the work of American activists who were independent of feminists abroad.
(C) It was the culminating achievement of the utopian socialist movement.
(D) it was a manifestation of an international movement for social change and feminism.
(E) It was the final manifestation of the women's rights movement in the United States in the nineteenth century.


Spoiler: :: OA
B

3. The author's attitude toward most European historians who have studied the Saint-Simonians is primarily one of

(A) approval of the specific focus of their research
(B) disapproval of their lack of attention to the issue that absorbed most of the Saint-Simonians' energy after 1832
(C) approval of their general focus on social conditions
(D) disapproval of their lack of attention to lids between the Saint-Simonians and their American counterparts
(E) disagreement with their interpretation of the Saint-Simonian belief in sexual equality


Spoiler: :: OA
E

4. The author mentions all of the following as characteristic of the Saint-Simonians EXCEPT:

(A) The group included many women among its members.
(B) The group believed in a world that would be characterized by sexual equality.
(C) The group was among the earliest European socialist groups.
(D) Most members believed that women should enter public life.
(E) Most members believed that women and men were inherently similar in ability and character.


Spoiler: :: OA
A

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the Saint-Simonians envisioned a utopian society having which of the following characteristics?

(A) It would be worldwide.
(B) It would emphasize dogmatic religious principles.
(C) It would most influence the United States.
(D) It would have armies composed of women rather than of men.
(E) It would continue to develop new feminist ideas.


Spoiler: :: OA
A

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that study of Saint-Simonianism is necessary for historians of American feminism because such study

(A) would clarify the ideological origins of those feminist ideas that influenced American feminism
(B) would increase understanding of a movement that deeply influenced the utopian socialism of early American feminists
(C) would focus attention on the most important aspect of Saint-Simonian thought before 1832
(D) promises to offer insight into a movement that was a direct outgrowth of the Seneca Falls conference of 1848
(E) could increase understanding of those ideals that absorbed most of the energy of the earliest American feminists


Spoiler: :: OA
B

7. According to the passage, which of the following would be the most accurate description of the society envisioned by most Saint-Simonians?

(A) A society in which women were highly regarded for their extensive education
(B) A society in which the two genders played complementary roles and had equal status
(C) A society in which women did not enter public life
(D) A social order in which a body of men and women would rule together on the basis of their spiritual power
(E) A social order in which distinctions between male and female would not exist and all would share equally in political power


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Originally posted by carcass on 09 Feb 2019, 09:56.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 27 Sep 2019, 01:07, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2019, 19:31
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Q1: A - other answers out of scope of info in the passage and A had the most to do with addressing the lack of awareness regarding the European origin of feminist ideas
Q2: D - "... utopian socialism—which was already popularizing feminist ideas in Europe during the two decades that culminated in the first women's rights conference held at Seneca Falls."
Q3: B - "By 1832 feminism was the central concern of Saint-Simonianism and entirely absorbed its adherents' energy; hence, by ignoring its feminism, European historians have misunderstood Saint-Simonianism"
Q4: E - "This minority believed that individuals of both sexes were born similar in capacity and character..."
Q5: A - "based their feminism on an interpretation of his project to reorganize the globe by replacing brute force with the rule of spiritual powers. The new world order..."
Q6: A - again, addresses the point of the passage which is to highlight the origin of feminist ideas via Saint-Simonianism
Q7: B - D is the other closest contender but mentions a "body of men and women" as opposed to just one male and female, and answer choice B better encompasses the entire idea vs D which only describes one aspect of it
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Re: Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2019, 09:04
All correct (except Q2) in 13 mins 30 seconds, including 5 mins 30 seconds to read
Para 1- US feminist movements, historians investigations, failed to recognize that feminism was then a truly international movement actually centered in Europe
Para 2- Saint-Simonians- feminist part of Saint-Simonianism has, however, been less studied than the group's contribution to early socialism- why this is regrettable; new world order by SS
Para 3- Only a few Saint-Simonians opposed a definition of sexual equality based on gender distinction

1. It can be inferred that the author considers those historians who describe early feminists in the United States as "solitary" to be
(A) insufficiently familiar with the international origins of nineteenth-century American feminist thought - Correct
even when historians did take into account those feminist ideas and activities occurring within the United States, they failed to recognize that feminism was then a truly international movement actually centered in Europe.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the Seneca Falls conference on women's rights?
(A) It was primarily a product of nineteenth-century Saint-Simonian feminist thought. - incorrect, we do not know whether it was primarily a product of SS fem though
(B) It was the work of American activists who were independent of feminists abroad. - incorrect
(C) It was the culminating achievement of the utopian socialist movement. -
(D) it was a manifestation of an international movement for social change and feminism.
(E) It was the final manifestation of the women's rights movement in the United States in the nineteenth century. - incorrect
AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , VeritasPrepErika , other experts - please provide your inputs for question 2

utopian socialism—which was already popularizing feminist ideas in Europe during the two decades that culminated in the first women's rights conference held at Seneca Falls. New York. in 1848
I was down to options C and D and chose C

3. The author's attitude toward most European historians who have studied the Saint-Simonians is primarily one of
(B) disapproval of their lack of attention to the issue that absorbed most of the Saint-Simonians' energy after 1832
The specifically feminist part of Saint-Simonianism has, however, been less studied than the group's contribution to early socialism. This is regrettable on two counts. By 1832 feminism was the central concern of Saint-Simonianism and entirely absorbed its adherents' energy; hence, by ignoring its feminism, European historians have misunderstood Saint-Simonianism.

4. The author mentions all of the following as characteristic of the Saint-Simonians EXCEPT:
(E) Most members believed that women and men were inherently similar in ability and character.
Only a few Saint-Simonians opposed a definition of sexual equality based on gender distinction. This minority believed that individuals of both sexes were born similar in capacity and character

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the Saint-Simonians envisioned a utopian society having which of the following characteristics?

(A) It would be worldwide.
The new world order would be ruled together by a male, to represent reflection, and a female, to represent sentiment.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that study of Saint-Simonianism is necessary for historians of American feminism because such study
(A) would clarify the ideological origins of those feminist ideas that influenced American feminism
that the detailed study already made of social conditions be expanded to include the ideological development of feminism.
The specifically feminist part of Saint-Simonianism has, however, been less studied than the group's contribution to early socialism.

7. According to the passage, which of the following would be the most accurate description of the society envisioned by most Saint-Simonians?

(B) A society in which the two genders played complementary roles and had equal status
The new world order would be ruled together by a male, to represent reflection, and a female, to represent sentiment. This complementarity reflects the fact that, while the Saint-Simonians did not reject the belief that there were innate differences between men and women, they nevertheless foresaw an equally important social and political role for both sexes in their utopia.
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Re: Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2019, 06:48
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the Seneca Falls conference on women's rights?
(A) It was primarily a product of nineteenth-century Saint-Simonian feminist thought.
(B) It was the work of American activists who were independent of feminists abroad.
(C) It was the culminating achievement of the utopian socialist movement. -
(D) it was a manifestation of an international movement for social change and feminism.
(E) It was the final manifestation of the women's rights movement in the United States in the nineteenth century.

please explain why D is correct and not C.
c is explicitly mentioned in the passage.
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Re: Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2019, 00:08
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Careful, Dhruvnneo. Any time an answer seems to directly state exactly what we want, we're probably falling into a trap. We aren't told that utopian socialism culminated in this conference. We're actually told that "two decades" culminated in this conference. What does that mean? Looking back, we're told that feminism was an international movement centered in Europe. Then we're told that American feminists we're connected to utopian socialism. That movement was popularizing feminism in Europe. So . . . American feminists were connected to a movement that made feminism popular in Europe. This happened during the same period that led up to the Seneca Falls conference. This conference was in America and the focus was on women's rights. So we know it grew out of an international movement (one that was happening in Europe and America), and we know that movement was concentrated on feminism. Do we know for a fact that utopian socialism itself was central to the event, or that this was the culminating event of that entire movement? We do not.

A quick way to eliminate C is to note that if it is true, D must be true, too. D is basically a weaker, less specific version of C. This doesn't go the other way. D can be true without C being true. Whenever one answer choice would imply another, the second answer may be right, but the first cannot be, or we'd have two answers!
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Re: Students of United States history, seeking to identify the circumstanc   [#permalink] 29 Aug 2019, 00:08
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