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The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not

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The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 23:37
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A
B
C
D
E

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  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

68% (02:20) correct 32% (02:30) wrong based on 125 sessions

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Palaeoanthropologists once believed that Neanderthals’ social networks resembled chimpanzees’. Among chimpanzees, individuals tend to treat ‘out-group’ counterparts as enemies to be driven away or eliminated, not fellows with whom to communicate or cooperate. This inference stemmed from the fact that, in most of the Neanderthal sites discovered so far, tools have been found pretty near the source of stone from which they had been made.

The palaeoanthropologists referred to in the above argument must have assumed that

A. Neanderthals used to settle in places where stones fit to make tools with were abundant.

B. Tools and artifacts could go far away from where they had been manufactured only if Neanderthals from one site engaged in trade with their counterparts from another site.

C. Neanderthals from different sites used different languages or sign languages which disallowed any cooperation across several settlements.

D. Neanderthals resemble the chimpanzees of today to a degree that justifies assuming that Neanderthals social organization must have been similar to today's chimpanzees'.

E. Among chimpanzees, groups fight one another over control of limited resources like food and an individual cooperates with other members of his or her group so that the group succeeds in retaining control over such resources.
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Re: The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2019, 23:57
Conclusion: Palaeoanthropologists once believed that Neanderthals’ social networks resembled chimpanzees’.
Supporting Premise: Among chimpanzees, individuals tend to treat ‘out-group’ counterparts as enemies to be driven away or eliminated, not fellows with whom to communicate or cooperate.
Supporting Premise: This inference stemmed from the fact that, in most of the Neanderthal sites discovered so far, tools have been found pretty near the source of stone from which they had been made.


A. Neanderthals used to settle in places where stones fit to make tools with were abundant. - Irrelevant. Even if they dont settle near places where stones are available, that doesn't weaken the conclusion.

C. Neanderthals from different sites used different languages or sign languages which disallowed any cooperation across several settlements. - This is new information that doesn't link with stone tools

D. Neanderthals resemble the chimpanzees of today to a degree that justifies assuming that Neanderthals social organization must have been similar to today's chimpanzees'. - Resemblance is not something that the passage talks about

E. Among chimpanzees, groups fight one another over control of limited resources like food and an individual cooperates with other members of his or her group so that the group succeeds in retaining control over such resources. - This doesn't give any information about whether Neanderthals also have the same behavior or that is the reason for having stone tools

B. Tools and artifacts could go far away from where they had been manufactured only if Neanderthals from one site engaged in trade with their counterparts from another site. - Correct. This proves that the reason why tools were found near the stone sites because they didn't engage in friendly trade. If we negate this, it weakens stand that they didn't engage in co-operation.
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Re: The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2019, 13:00
Why is C incorrect? If we negate it and say that "Neanderthals from different areas had similar languages that allowed to cooperate", then the argument, which includes the premise the monkeys treated other monkeys as enemies, is broken. So, C is a good answer.
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Re: The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2019, 23:45
mykrasovski wrote:
Why is C incorrect? If we negate it and say that "Neanderthals from different areas had similar languages that allowed to cooperate", then the argument, which includes the premise the monkeys treated other monkeys as enemies, is broken. So, C is a good answer.


Buddy u are taking the wrong road, the premises tells us that the Neanderthal drove away or eliminated and did not wish to communicate or cooperate with others .....

Do not challenge the premises / facts presented by the author as you will not be able to reach the conclusion...
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Re: The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2019, 14:04
mykrasovski wrote:
Why is C incorrect? If we negate it and say that "Neanderthals from different areas had similar languages that allowed to cooperate", then the argument, which includes the premise the monkeys treated other monkeys as enemies, is broken. So, C is a good answer.


Hi mykrasovski
I am not here to point out why C is wrong because that already been done. I am here to point out a flaw in your negation technique. Negating an assumption is absolutely necessary but it must be done correctly. Refer to CR bible to see the difference between opposite and logical opposite. We must only find a logical opposite to negate a sentence.
Logical opposite of C would be “Neanderthals from different areas did NOT use different languages....”.

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The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2019, 09:35
Doer01 wrote:
mykrasovski wrote:
Why is C incorrect? If we negate it and say that "Neanderthals from different areas had similar languages that allowed to cooperate", then the argument, which includes the premise the monkeys treated other monkeys as enemies, is broken. So, C is a good answer.


Hi mykrasovski
I am not here to point out why C is wrong because that already been done. I am here to point out a flaw in your negation technique. Negating an assumption is absolutely necessary but it must be done correctly. Refer to CR bible to see the difference between opposite and logical opposite. We must only find a logical opposite to negate a sentence.
Logical opposite of C would be “Neanderthals from different areas did NOT use different languages....”.

Posted from my mobile device


Hi doer, thanks for your reply. Okay, let's apply negation to answer choice B - "Tools and artifacts could not go far away", so it Strengthens the argument itself (see last sentence). Usually, the negation technique Weakens the argument... So, I don't understand how the Negation Technique works here... Perhaps, I should have negated the "only if" piece of the sentence and say "not only if"? Then the negated choice B means that the items could go far away from sites for other reasons than trade, while the argument says "in most of the Neanderthal sites ... tools have been found pretty near the source". The negation technique hurts / weakens the argument in this case. Am I correct?


Luckily, I do have the PS CR Bible book. However, I was not keen on following this book because some of the approaches it teaches differ from those in Manhattan CR book. For instance, Manhattan suggests to read & identify the question before reading the paragraph (stimulus), while the CR Bible says just the opposite. Also, Manhattan does a better job at classifying the question types (in my subjective view). Nonetheless, CR Bible is a highly respected book and I am wondering what your opinion about these two sources are. I am definitely struggling with CR and looking forward to find a source that will help me improve. Perhaps, I could "blend" the two books and supplement Manhattan foundation with more detail from CR Bible?

Thank you in advance!
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The Neanderthal's were sociable creatures or not   [#permalink] 21 Apr 2019, 09:35
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