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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2014, 02:31
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Hello e-gmat/experts,

Please throw some light on how to solve such questions. I am able to narrow down to choice B and D. Choice B seems more convincing to me. How to define a thought process for such questions?


Thanks a lot!!
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2014, 02:52
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Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made [#permalink]

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NEW Verbal Project - Reposting hardest verbal questions. Kudos for answers and explanation. OA in 48 hours

Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made entirely of carbon—were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
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Re: Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2014, 04:32
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Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made entirely of carbon—were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

Weakener type:
Conclusion: Discovery of natural FL will help geologists to know the earlier state of the Earth's crust vis.a.vis. lab conditions.
Assumptions: 1. Both FLs (lab-formed and natural) are similar
2. If not, structure/texture of natural occurring FL is known to scientists.
3. Natural FL did not undergo drastic changes/transformations during its evolution.

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation - Somehow i think it is strengthening the conclusion
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft - Irrelevant. Anyhow, FL could have infected from earth to meteorite or vice-versa, eventhough neither case would help to the passage.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed - Does not help.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure - Seems correct. If structure if natural FL is new for geologist then they would not be able to decipher the information from it.
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions - This also can be the correct answer as it also attack one of the assumptions.

So, I am confused between D and E.....but going with instinct, I chose D... :?

OA and OE please....
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Re: Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2014, 00:31
I think its C. I cant reason how but no other option seems to weaken the argument. Waiting for OA !

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Re: Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2014, 22:52
Conc: Discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed

Is the sample formed under lab conditions exactly similar to the one that occurs naturally? If we attack this then the argument is weakened.

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation - Irrelevant.
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft - Irrelevant.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed - Out of scope
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure - Correct. Fits the gap in logic perfectly.
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions - So what? Doesn't really mention about naturally ocurring fullerenes.

Kudos if it helps :)

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2015, 11:16
Hello Experts!
Need you all to intervene..
thanks
celestial


anujag24 wrote:
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Hello e-gmat/experts,

Please throw some light on how to solve such questions. I am able to narrow down to choice B and D. Choice B seems more convincing to me. How to define a thought process for such questions?


Thanks a lot!!

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 03:42
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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The correct option should tell that fullerenes in lab and fullerenes in nature are not analogous.

A, C and E talk about something that is out of scope.
We are left with B and D

B is a very weak weakener. You need to assume too much to make it a weakener. It may or may not be possible that those fullerenes may actually originated on earth. Option just say that fullerenes were found on the remains of a meteorite.

D on the other hand is a very strong weakener. If naturally occurring fullerenes have a different structure all together then it is an entirely different kind of fullerene and therefore conditions for artificial one may be different from the naturally occurring one.

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2016, 01:51
A must refer to understand this question "RonPurewal's (from Manhattan) explanation" -

https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t1578.html

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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Take another look at that answer choice: It's the crystalline structure of the found fullerenes that's 'previously unknown'. That means that the fullerenes that have been discovered are fundamentally different from ALL other fullerenes that have ever been described - including all the ones that have ever been made in labs.
* This means that these particular fullerenes - the ones that have been found in the fissures - are chemically different from all the KNOWN classes of fullerenes.
* [KEY INFERENCE] That means that we don't know the 'distinctive conditions of temp and pressure' required to form the NEW kinds of fullerenes.
* Therefore, because of this ignorance, they don't constitute a test case for anything geological.

Hope that helps.

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2016, 21:22
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I don't think this is a very difficult question argument-wise. I think someone with a background in geology will get it down within a minute. The difficulty purely arises from esoteric vocabulary.

Let's do the following and you will know what I mean. google/wiki 'fullerene', shungite, mineral (for its academic definition) and now redo the problem. I am pretty sure most will have no problem seeing through the argument.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 09:46
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2016, 10:20
Well I will be glad to help.

First we will look at the structure of the argument.
One needs to find the conclusion and premise distinctively to understand the argument properly .

Premise 1 - Fullerenes - a carbon molecule - structure - spherical (1st discovered in the lab) - created under distinct conditions of pressure and temp.
Premise 2 - Fullerenes - a carbon molecule - structure - not given (Now discovered in the nature)
Conclusion - This discovery (Finding fullerenes in the nature) will tell us about the state of the earth's crust at the time Fullerenes was created.

Why option D is a solid weakener , let's have a look -
Now if the structure of Fulleres found in the nature is crystalline ( and unknown to scientist),
then scientists cannot tell anything from the these crystalline Fulleres(because they have know about only Spherical Structures).



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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2016, 18:56
I am absolutely clueless as to how to address and solve such questions as I am not able to chalk out any pattern here.

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2016, 19:26
bhamini1 wrote:
I am absolutely clueless as to how to address and solve such questions as I am not able to chalk out any pattern here.


it is a 700 - level question from a specific science's(geology) background.
Most people are supposed to be clueless when they encounter such question, If they don't know about the topic/ have not practiced enough.
Only possibility is that you practice such questions, questions from the topics in you are clueless.
Gradually increasing practice from 500 to 600 to 700 - level questions.
gmatclub has sorted out the difficulty levels with distinct CR question types. (Assumptions, weakens , etc.)

Here is the link -
critical-reasoning-question-directory-topic-and-difficulty-128861.html


Hope this helps.
:)

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2016, 04:39
D is correct because it dictates that natural fullrenes are different from those produced in the lab. Thus, conditions of the earth hypotheses can’t be evaluated.

Passage analysis:
Fact: fullerenes dicovered in laboratory, but still found in nature (mineral shungite).
Fact: processing fullrene in a lab requires special conditions.
Conclusion: natural fullrenes may help geologists validate an hypotheses about earth’s crust, because they would validate if the conditions of the earth when fullrenes were naturally created were the same as those in the lab while artificially producing the same product.
ASSUMPTION: both fullrenes are alike and can help validate natural conditions required for its production.

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2016, 18:52
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


This argument states that naturally found fullerenes will help in finding further details about earth's crust. And assumption here is that the naturally occurring fullerenes will be formed under similar circumstances and will be similar to the one formed in lab.

To weaken this, we should look for something which will prove that the natural fullerenes and the ones made in lab are different.
Option D does this exactly.

Therefore I think D is the correct answer.

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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2016, 00:12
I had to read it thrice,just to get the essence. :x
How do you approach a question as confusing as this??

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2016, 22:04
The substance was formed under careful observation and controlled conditions from a known element.

Option D states that the source has a unknown crystalline structure and hence we won't be able to form a correlation to the settings applied in the lab.

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of   [#permalink] 16 Dec 2016, 22:04

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