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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f

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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2015, 03:26
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The correct option should tell that fullerenes in lab and fullerenes in nature are not analogous.

A, C and E talk about something that is out of scope.
We are left with B and D

B is a very weak weakener. You need to assume too much to make it a weakener. It may or may not be possible that those fullerenes may actually originated on earth. Option just say that fullerenes were found on the remains of a meteorite.

D on the other hand is a very strong weakener. If naturally occurring fullerenes have a different structure all together then it is an entirely different kind of fullerene and therefore conditions for artificial one may be different from the naturally occurring one.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2016, 01:51
A must refer to understand this question "RonPurewal's (from Manhattan) explanation" -

https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t1578.html
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 10:09
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Take another look at that answer choice: It's the crystalline structure of the found fullerenes that's 'previously unknown'. That means that the fullerenes that have been discovered are fundamentally different from ALL other fullerenes that have ever been described - including all the ones that have ever been made in labs.
* This means that these particular fullerenes - the ones that have been found in the fissures - are chemically different from all the KNOWN classes of fullerenes.
* [KEY INFERENCE] That means that we don't know the 'distinctive conditions of temp and pressure' required to form the NEW kinds of fullerenes.
* Therefore, because of this ignorance, they don't constitute a test case for anything geological.

Hope that helps.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2016, 21:22
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I don't think this is a very difficult question argument-wise. I think someone with a background in geology will get it down within a minute. The difficulty purely arises from esoteric vocabulary.

Let's do the following and you will know what I mean. google/wiki 'fullerene', shungite, mineral (for its academic definition) and now redo the problem. I am pretty sure most will have no problem seeing through the argument.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 09:46
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2016, 10:20
Well I will be glad to help.

First we will look at the structure of the argument.
One needs to find the conclusion and premise distinctively to understand the argument properly .

Premise 1 - Fullerenes - a carbon molecule - structure - spherical (1st discovered in the lab) - created under distinct conditions of pressure and temp.
Premise 2 - Fullerenes - a carbon molecule - structure - not given (Now discovered in the nature)
Conclusion - This discovery (Finding fullerenes in the nature) will tell us about the state of the earth's crust at the time Fullerenes was created.

Why option D is a solid weakener , let's have a look -
Now if the structure of Fulleres found in the nature is crystalline ( and unknown to scientist),
then scientists cannot tell anything from the these crystalline Fulleres(because they have know about only Spherical Structures).



:)
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2016, 18:56
I am absolutely clueless as to how to address and solve such questions as I am not able to chalk out any pattern here.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2016, 19:26
bhamini1 wrote:
I am absolutely clueless as to how to address and solve such questions as I am not able to chalk out any pattern here.


it is a 700 - level question from a specific science's(geology) background.
Most people are supposed to be clueless when they encounter such question, If they don't know about the topic/ have not practiced enough.
Only possibility is that you practice such questions, questions from the topics in you are clueless.
Gradually increasing practice from 500 to 600 to 700 - level questions.
gmatclub has sorted out the difficulty levels with distinct CR question types. (Assumptions, weakens , etc.)

Here is the link -
critical-reasoning-question-directory-topic-and-difficulty-128861.html


Hope this helps.
:)
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2016, 04:39
D is correct because it dictates that natural fullrenes are different from those produced in the lab. Thus, conditions of the earth hypotheses can’t be evaluated.

Passage analysis:
Fact: fullerenes dicovered in laboratory, but still found in nature (mineral shungite).
Fact: processing fullrene in a lab requires special conditions.
Conclusion: natural fullrenes may help geologists validate an hypotheses about earth’s crust, because they would validate if the conditions of the earth when fullrenes were naturally created were the same as those in the lab while artificially producing the same product.
ASSUMPTION: both fullrenes are alike and can help validate natural conditions required for its production.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2016, 18:52
bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


This argument states that naturally found fullerenes will help in finding further details about earth's crust. And assumption here is that the naturally occurring fullerenes will be formed under similar circumstances and will be similar to the one formed in lab.

To weaken this, we should look for something which will prove that the natural fullerenes and the ones made in lab are different.
Option D does this exactly.

Therefore I think D is the correct answer.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2016, 00:12
I had to read it thrice,just to get the essence. :x
How do you approach a question as confusing as this??
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2016, 22:04
The substance was formed under careful observation and controlled conditions from a known element.

Option D states that the source has a unknown crystalline structure and hence we won't be able to form a correlation to the settings applied in the lab.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2017, 08:07
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
Note:
first found in the laboratory.

conclusion:
Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Ask is weaken the conclusion :

what if the laboratory formed ones are NOT the same as the natural ones (structure wise). ?
Conclusion is weakened.

A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
no mention of genuineness.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
not a matter of concern.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
may be. nothing to be concerned about.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
That suggests - the laboratory formed ones are NOT the same as the natural ones
CORRECT.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions
No one cares.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2017, 09:48
shekyonline wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
Note:
first found in the laboratory.

conclusion:
Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Ask is weaken the conclusion :

what if the laboratory formed ones are NOT the same as the natural ones (structure wise). ?
Conclusion is weakened.

A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
no mention of genuineness.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
not a matter of concern.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
may be. nothing to be concerned about.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
That suggests - the laboratory formed ones are NOT the same as the natural ones
CORRECT.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions
No one cares.


I take that GMAT requires us to select the best choice. I marked B as my answer which is obviously wrong here.

Can you help clarify why B is out of scope. It very well undermines the premise that FULLERENES are now found in nature. This is a premise itself. and the hypothesis that has to be verified is concerned with the state of the earth when FULLERENES were formed. The FULLERENES may not be natural at all.

this is how I interpreted it.
Why D is incorrect , it says the Structure is different, which is okay because Fullerenes discovered in LAB are spherical and hypothesis is concerned with Natural FFULLERENES formation.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2017, 23:24
it seems that we need full knowledge of chemistry before we work out this CR >,<
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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2018, 16:29
D.

Premise 1: fullerenes were first found in the laboratory

Premise 2: fullerenes have since been found in nature

Conclusion: It´s possible to evaluate the state of the Earth's crust at the time fullereness were naturally formed using laboratory findings.


(A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
Knowing that lab experimentation were carefully done does not affect the conclusion.
(B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
Even though there are some fullerenes coming from small meteorite, this fact does not weak the possibility concluded by the argument that states that it is possible evaluate the state of Earth´s crust at the time fullerenes were formed.
(C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
Since fullereness is made entirely of carbon, and it has since been found in the rare mineral shungite, it is reasonable to think that shungite favors the fullerenes presence, a fact that does noe undermine the conclusion of the argument.
(D) The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
It brings a us a new fact (naturally formed fullerenes are formed by an unkown crystalline, in other words we cannot transpose the findings from laboratory to natural formation).
(E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
We already know that. This information does not undermine the conclusion.
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f   [#permalink] 10 Jan 2018, 16:29

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