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DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical

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DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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“DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene. Proponents have claimed astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone. These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting?

(A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.

(B) There is generally accepted theoretical basis for interpreting the patterns produced by the procedure.

(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic characteristics are shared.

(D) The skill required of laboratory technicians performing the DNA fingerprinting procedure is not extraordinary.

(E) In the investigation of certain genetic diseases, the techniques used in DNA fingerprinting have traced the transmission of the diseases among the living members of very large families.

Source: LSAT

[Reveal] Spoiler:
I arrived at the answer purely by POE, could anybody please explain to me the argument and the logic. Thanks.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by broall on 24 Sep 2017, 21:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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We need to find a fact which weakens the claim that DNA fingerprinting is foolproof. It is also mentioned that 'These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.'

(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic
characteristics are shared.
This information clearly weaken the claim. As different subgroups may share the same genetic characteristics, the assumption on which the claim is based is proved wrong.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2010, 10:41
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First POE is not too bad. IMO you should look at all answers to see that there is no "better" answer, so you can POE while you do that. A better answer is an answer that attack directly the conclusion (in weaken question like this) and adds less "out of scope" data as possible.
When I looked at this question I immediately canceled A,B & D as IMO they are too far from the data given in the question or simply irrelevant.
When I looked at E it seemed to attack less directly the "independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern" than C did. so I was left with C.
Hope that helps..
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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Legendaddy wrote:
“DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene. Proponents have claimed astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone. These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting?
(A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.
(B) There is a generally accepted theoretical basis for interpreting the patterns produced by the procedure.
(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic characteristics are shared.
(D) The skill required of laboratory technicians performing the DNA fingerprinting procedure is not extraordinary.
(E) In the investigation of certain genetic diseases, the techniques used in DNA fingerprinting have traced the transmission of the diseases among the living members of very large families.


Think of what you have to weaken here: the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting. What is that claim? that odds against obtaining a match by chance alone are astronomical. Say, the odds are something like a 1 in a billion that the DNA fingerprint of one person will match the DNA fingerprint of another person.

You have to weaken this claim. The author tells you that the odds were calculated assuming that the different characteristics in a pattern are independent. Think of a password. If you have to write a 10 letter password using only letters of the alphabet, there are 26*26*26.....26 = (26)^10 different ways in which you can write it. The odds against two people creating the same password are very high. You are assuming here that each letter is independent of the other 9 letters. What if that is not the case? Say, your password must have at least 2 of the 5 vowels. You have created restrictions. Each letter is not independent of the other letters now. The number of passwords you can create now is significantly lower.

Option (C) tells you that some groups share the same characteristics i.e. of the 10 letters, 5 letters are identical in each password of this group. Now, the chances of getting the same password have increased significantly. This weakens the claim that the odds against finding a match are very high.

The only other option you could get stuck in is (A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.
This just tells you that the features that people share are not a part of fingerprinting procedure. This is like telling you that the passwords actually have 15 letters but the first 5 letters are the same for everyone. Basically, it doesn't change our odds at all. We anyway did not include the common part in our calculation. Hence, this option does not weaken the claim.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2010, 19:50
Out of the 5 choices only A and E are relevant to the premises provided in the stimulus.

Option A strengthens or supports the proponents by discounting the common genetic material shared.

Option C is exactly the opposite of option A and it weakens the argument presented in the stimulus.

And I agree, POE is the best technique here.
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New post 16 Sep 2010, 20:01
I thought in A, the answer means that some parts of the DNA is not tested, and therefore it's most likely to cause mistakes.

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New post 16 Sep 2010, 20:03
FQ wrote:
I thought in A, the answer means that some parts of the DNA is not tested, and therefore it's most likely to cause mistakes.


Option A talks of some parts which is shared across diverse groups and hence including it in the DNA analysis will skew the result. Hence option A should be ruled out.

The idea is to cut out the common portion and retain the uniqueness of the DNA fingerprint to uniquely identify the individual.


Side note: I have heard that comparing at least 6 different areas of the DNA strands or sequences, the chances of these 6 areas matching for any two individual is simply out of the question since the chances are less than 1 in 6 billion. :-D

Completely irrelevant to the current context but nevertheless interesting bits of information.

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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2010, 20:01
C

I had to read all the answer choices two times.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2010, 09:12
Used POE to eliminate B, D & E since they are irrelevant

Assumption is based on the fact that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern. Therefore, anything that suggests that there is no independence between the different characteristics will weaken this assumption. Between A & C, A talks about the material that is shared and is not included in the fingerprinting procedure. Not much help. However, C talks about the fact that different subgroups share certain genetic characteristics.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2010, 20:32
C for me. Another 2 min+ question for me. I had to read the options couple of times.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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“DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene. Proponents have claimed astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone. These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting?
(A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.
(B) There is a generally accepted theoretical basis for interpreting the patterns produced by the procedure.
(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic characteristics are shared.
(D) The skill required of laboratory technicians performing the DNA fingerprinting procedure is not extraordinary.
(E) In the investigation of certain genetic diseases, the techniques used in DNA fingerprinting have traced the transmission of the diseases among the living members of very large families.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2012, 22:26
Legendaddy wrote:
“DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene. Proponents have claimed astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone. These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting?
(A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.
(B) There is a generally accepted theoretical basis for interpreting the patterns produced by the procedure.
(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic characteristics are shared.
(D) The skill required of laboratory technicians performing the DNA fingerprinting procedure is not extraordinary.
(E) In the investigation of certain genetic diseases, the techniques used in DNA fingerprinting have traced the transmission of the diseases among the living members of very large families.


The basic assumption that the proponents consider is the independence between the different characteristics; therefore we need to attack this basic assumption by finding something that will show us that the patterns were similar and not unique/independent.

A- if it is not included in the procedure that means the patterns are still independent.
b- not relevant
C- YES , there are groups, which share genetic characteristics : attacks the basic assumption of independent characteristics
D- skills required ? Out of scope
E- talks about diseases , strike it off .

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[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2012, 23:29
Premise - “DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene.
Premise or Assumption? - These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Conclusion - astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone

Anything which weakens the conclusion is our answer

Option C weakens the conclusion and is our answer
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2016, 19:21
gautrang wrote:
“DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene. Proponents have claimed astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone. These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting?
(A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.
(B) There is generally accepted theoretical basis for interpreting the patterns produced by the procedure.
(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic characteristics are shared.
(D) The skill required of laboratory technicians performing the DNA fingerprinting procedure is not extraordinary.
(E) In the investigation of certain genetic diseases, the techniques used in DNA fingerprinting have traced the transmission of the diseases among the living members of very large families.

I arrived at the answer purely by POE, could anybody please explain to me the argument and the logic. Thanks.


we need to get an answer choice that would support usage of dna fingerprinting.
the proponents say it will be difficult..we need to say it will be not..
A - that makes the usage difficult so out
B - completely irrelevant
C - ok, so the patterns CAN be classified..we can use the technique to ID the suspect..because it will belong to a specific subgroup.
D - what techniques dna fingerprinting uses and how difficult these are are irrelevant.
E - good one...but one large family "shares" the same genetic code..we need an answer choice that would say that different genetic codes can be classified into subgroups/identified. so e is out and C stands

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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2017, 06:13
“DNA fingerprinting” is a recently-introduced biochemical procedure that uses a pattern derived from a person’s genetic material to match a suspect’s genetic material against that of a specimen from a crime scene. Proponents have claimed astronomically high odds against obtaining a match by chance alone. These odds are based on an assumption that there is independence between the different characteristics represented by a single pattern.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the claim of the proponents of DNA fingerprinting?
(A) The large amount of genetic material that people share with all other people and with other animals is not included in the DNA fingerprinting procedure.
(B) There is generally accepted theoretical basis for interpreting the patterns produced by the procedure.
(C) In the whole population there are various different subgroups, within each of which certain sets of genetic characteristics are shared.
(D) The skill required of laboratory technicians performing the DNA fingerprinting procedure is not extraordinary.
(E) In the investigation of certain genetic diseases, the techniques used in DNA fingerprinting have traced the transmission of the diseases among the living members of very large families.
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Re: DNA fingerprinting is a recently-introduced biochemical   [#permalink] 29 May 2017, 06:13
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