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# Even in ancient times, specialized farms (farms that grow a

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Even in ancient times, specialized farms (farms that grow a [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2006, 12:24
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Even in ancient times, specialized farms (farms that grow a single type of crop or livestock) existed only where there were large commercial markets for farm products, and such markets presuppose urban populations. Therefore the extensive ruins in the archaeological site at Kadishim are probably the remains of a largely uninhabited ceremonial structure rather than of a densely populated city, since the land in the region of Kadshim could never have supported any farms except mixed farms, which grow a variety of crops and livestock.
Which one of the following is an error of reasoning in the argument?
(A) taking the fact that something is true of one sample of a class of things as evidence that the same is true of the entire class of things
(B) taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist
(C) interpreting an ambiguous claim in one way in one part of the argument and in another way in another part of the argument
(D) supposing that because two things usually occur in conjunction with one another, one of them must be the cause of the other
(E) drawing a conclusion that is simply a restatement of one of the premises on which the argument is based

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09 Sep 2006, 12:41
B?

looks like a case of

X => Y and hence X' => Y'

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09 Sep 2006, 14:19
D sounds logical.

Just because specialized farms => large commercial markets, doesn't necessarily mean specialized farms are the cause of large commercial markets and vice versa.
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09 Sep 2006, 15:47
B looks like it

Taking what is found at the site as the only evidence and trying to conclude on a premise that something is not existing as the primary evidence is questionable.

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09 Sep 2006, 23:50
I would go with B.

Specialized farms need urban populations. But urban populations do not necessarily need specilzed farms.

hence "taking the nonexistence of something (read specialized farms) as evidence that a necessary precondition (read urban populations) for that thing also did not exist
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10 Sep 2006, 06:16
Going for (B) too .Had to check the meaning of the wrod presuppose
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10 Sep 2006, 09:07
(D) supposing that because two things usually occur in conjunction with one another, one of them must be the cause of the other

B and D are closest to explain

Given:
SpecializedFarms ->Large Mkts
Large Mkts -> Urban Population

Conclusion:
No Specialized Farms therefore no urban population.

D fits the cause and affect implication.

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10 Sep 2006, 12:09
B makes sense.

since the evidence for the mixed farming is completely missing.

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10 Sep 2006, 16:10
I like B here... must say this one was tough for me !

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10 Sep 2006, 19:35
One more for D

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10 Sep 2006, 21:13
i don't know, but i go with E.

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11 Sep 2006, 03:11
ak_idc wrote:
I would go with B.

Specialized farms need urban populations. But urban populations do not necessarily need specilzed farms.

hence "taking the nonexistence of something (read specialized farms) as evidence that a necessary precondition (read urban populations) for that thing also did not exist

B it is.

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11 Sep 2006, 04:54
It's between B and D.. I pick D for the following reason...
(B) taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist

This says that the Non existence of specialized farms --> pre-condition does not exist...but the passage does not say that dense population is a pre-condition, rather it says that it is follows from a presence of specialized farms...

(D) supposing that because two things usually occur in conjunction with one another, one of them must be the cause of the other

D actually hits the spot by saying two things that could have happened simultaneously are being linked as cause-effect by the passage...

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11 Sep 2006, 06:31
Think it is B.

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11 Sep 2006, 19:12
sumitsarkar82 wrote:
It's between B and D.. I pick D for the following reason...
(B) taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist

This says that the Non existence of specialized farms --> pre-condition does not exist...but the passage does not say that dense population is a pre-condition, rather it says that it is follows from a presence of specialized farms...

(D) supposing that because two things usually occur in conjunction with one another, one of them must be the cause of the other

D actually hits the spot by saying two things that could have happened simultaneously are being linked as cause-effect by the passage...

Even in ancient times, specialized farms (farms that grow a single type of crop or livestock) existed only where there were large commercial markets for farm products, and such markets presuppose urban populations

Sumit, are n't the highlighted words suggesting that urban populations are a pre-condition?
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12 Sep 2006, 01:33
ak_idc wrote:
sumitsarkar82 wrote:
It's between B and D.. I pick D for the following reason...
(B) taking the nonexistence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist

This says that the Non existence of specialized farms --> pre-condition does not exist...but the passage does not say that dense population is a pre-condition, rather it says that it is follows from a presence of specialized farms...

(D) supposing that because two things usually occur in conjunction with one another, one of them must be the cause of the other

D actually hits the spot by saying two things that could have happened simultaneously are being linked as cause-effect by the passage...

Even in ancient times, specialized farms (farms that grow a single type of crop or livestock) existed only where there were large commercial markets for farm products, and such markets presuppose urban populations

Sumit, are n't the highlighted words suggesting that urban populations are a pre-condition?

My bad... You seem to be right...

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13 Sep 2006, 04:23
I choose D

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13 Sep 2006, 04:43
presuppose- assume the prior existence of

I change my answer to B. Yes, you have to look up presuppose even if the term sounds familiar. The text already states that the existence of market 'presupposes' urban population.
Hence, both conditions really do come together!

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13 Sep 2006, 06:31
+1 for B

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13 Sep 2006, 07:05
Whats the OA?

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13 Sep 2006, 07:05

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# Even in ancient times, specialized farms (farms that grow a

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