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Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old

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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
can someone explain why a) and not c) in Q4?
thanks!
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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Explanation

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning Spanish tribute records?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Answer to this question can be found in para 2, Read lines 15-24 and we can deduct the answer

a number of dangerous maladies—smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several more—were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World. The effects of their sudden introduction are demonstrated in the early chronicles of America, which contain reports of horrendous epidemics and steep population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent quantitative analyses of Spanish tribute records and other sources. The evidence provided by the documents of British and French colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century

(A) They mention only epidemics of smallpox. Incorrect
This is incorrect because no only smallpox but other diseases are also mentioned in lines, other diseases like measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several more

(B) They were instituted in 1492. Incorrect
1492 is mentioned in first paragraph but it doesn't relates to this question, this date is just to mislead the test takers.

(C) They were being kept prior to the seventeenth century. Correct
We can select this only when we read these lines

The evidence provided by the documents of British and French colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century

(D) They provide quantitative and qualitative evidence about Native American populations. Incorrect
Passage discussed only quantitative analysis but not qualitative. It is out of the race because it is half true and half false answer choice.

(E) They prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World. Incorrect
There is no such indication is available about tribute records.

Hope it helps

alpacino wrote:
can someone explain why a) and not c) in Q4?
thanks!
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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SOLUTION SECTION

Questions Solving

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) refute a common misconception
(B) provide support for a hypothesis
(C) analyze an argument
(D) suggest a solution to a dilemma
(E) reconcile opposing viewpoints
Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old World for the staggering disparity between the indigenous population of America in 1492—new estimates of which soar as high as 100 million, or approximately one-sixth of the human race at that time—and the few million full-blooded Native Americans alive at the end of the nineteenth century. There is no doubt that chronic disease was an important factor in the precipitous decline, and it is highly probable that the greatest killer was epidemic disease, especially as manifested in virgin-soil epidemics.

BOLD VOCAB SHOW THE AUTHOR WANT TO SAY HYPOTHESIZE

Central idea exercise –
1. The author’s hypothesis that one main reason for the decline of North American population in the fifteenth century was epidemic diseases, especially virgin – soil epidemic.
2. How virgin – soil epidemics make common diseases become fatal for people who have not been exposed to it earlier.
3. Examples from different periods in the history of America, when several lives were lost due to these epidemics, illustrating that even less fatal diseases have tragic consequences when they strike immunologically defenseless communities.

The primary purpose of the author refers to the chief objective of the author in writing the passage. The author is offering a supposition about a theory and then proposing explanations to support it. He states that a primary reason for the decline of population in 15th century. North America may be due to virgin – soil epidemics and then proceeds to elaborate this theory by providing evidence. This is precisely what option (B) states. Hence, it is the correct answer.
There is no misconception that the author is refuting in the passage, so option (A) is incorrect.
The author is not analyzing an argument, hence option (c) is incorrect.
Similarly, the author is neither suggesting a solution, nor reconciling opposing viewpoints. Hence option (D) and (E) can be eliminated too.

2.According to the passage, virgin-soil epidemics can be distinguished from other catastrophic outbreaks of disease in that virgin-soil epidemics
(A) recur more frequently than other chronic diseases
(B) affect a minimum of one-half of a given population
(C) involve populations with no prior exposure to a disease
(D) usually involve a number of interacting diseases
(E) are less responsive to medical treatment than are other diseases

To answer this questions, we need to refer to the first line of the second paragraph, “Virgin-soil epidemics are those in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless.” Option (C) points out the difference between virgin – soil epidemics from other diseases, the way in which the author tries to convey in the passage. Hence it is the correct answer.
All the other options are not mentioned by the author, as the distinguishing factor between virgin –soil epidemics and other diseases. Hence, all can be eliminated.

3.According to the passage, the British colonists were unlike the Spanish colonists in that the British colonists
(A) collected tribute from the native population
(B) kept records from a very early date
(C) drove Native Americans off the land
(D) were unable to provide medical care against epidemic disease
(E) enslaved the native populations in America

We need to refer to the last line of the second paragraph, “Furthermore, the British tended to drive the native populations away, rather than enslaving them as the Spaniards did, so that the epidemics of British America occurred beyond the range of colonists’ direct observation.” It states that the British drove the native population off their lands, rather than enslaving them as the Spaniards did. Hence, option (C) is the correct answer.
Option (A) is not mentioned, hence incorrect.
Option (B) is contrary to the information provided by the author. Hence, this can be eliminated too.
Option (D) is again not mentioned, hence incorrect.
Option (E) is wrong fact, as the lines above suggest. Hence incorrect.

Level of difficulty
Questions – Medium
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
Explanation

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning Spanish tribute records?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Answer to this question can be found in para 2, Read lines 15-24 and we can deduct the answer

a number of dangerous maladies—smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several more—were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World. The effects of their sudden introduction are demonstrated in the early chronicles of America, which contain reports of horrendous epidemics and steep population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent quantitative analyses of Spanish tribute records and other sources. The evidence provided by the documents of British and French colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century

(A) They mention only epidemics of smallpox. Incorrect
This is incorrect because no only smallpox but other diseases are also mentioned in lines, other diseases like measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several more

(B) They were instituted in 1492. Incorrect
1492 is mentioned in first paragraph but it doesn't relates to this question, this date is just to mislead the test takers.

(C) They were being kept prior to the seventeenth century. Correct
We can select this only when we read these lines

The evidence provided by the documents of British and French colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century

(D) They provide quantitative and qualitative evidence about Native American populations. Incorrect
Passage discussed only quantitative analysis but not qualitative. It is out of the race because it is half true and half false answer choice.

(E) They prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World. Incorrect
There is no such indication is available about tribute records.

Hope it helps

alpacino wrote:
can someone explain why a) and not c) in Q4?
thanks!

It mentions French and British how these are Spanish tributes?
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
junii wrote:
It mentions French and British how these are Spanish tributes?

Can you share your viewpoint on this question? what should be the answer according to you and why?
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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7/8 correct.
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
Why E in Q4. is wrong? This is also mentioned in para 2.
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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TBT wrote:
Why E in Q4. is wrong? This is also mentioned in para 2.

Hi TBT,

https://gmatclub.com/forum/increasingly-historians-are-blaming-diseases-imported-from-the-old-250999.html#p2305471

My take on the question is as below:

What's mentioned in the passage is: "That virgin-soil epidemics were important in American history is strongly indicated by evidence that a number of dangerous maladies—smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several more—were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World. The effects of their sudden introduction are demonstrated in the early chronicles of America, which contain reports of horrendous epidemics and steep population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent quantitative analyses of Spanish tribute records and other sources.The evidence provided by the documents of British and French colonies is not as definitive because the conquerors of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century.

Options and C and E are no doubt the best contenders, as both are present in the 2nd para and really to what's asked about the Spanish tribute records. However, if we look closely to what is mentioned in the 2nd para of the passage, we can infer that Spanish records never explicitly prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World, they are the quantitative analyses that in many cases confirm reports of horrendous epidemics and steep population declines. If look at the line mentioned just after that, we see that documents of British and French colonies are not as conclusive as the Spanish tribute records.

So in my opinion C is a better answer than E.

Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
Please explain why C is not correct for Question no.5? Also please explain why A is wrong!! Thankyou
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Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
deep1624 wrote:
Please explain why C is not correct for Question no.5? Also please explain why A is wrong!! Thankyou

Explanation

I have tried to explain why C is incorrect but keep in mind (A) is the correct answer.

5. The author implies which of the following about measles?

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

First, read the related text from the passage:

From paragraph 2:

"That virgin-soil epidemics were important in American history is strongly indicated by evidence that a number of dangerous maladies—smallpox, measles, malaria, yellow fever, and undoubtedly several more—were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World."

From last paragraph:

"For example, in 1952 an outbreak of measles among the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay, Quebec, affected 99 percent of the population and killed 7 percent, even though some had the benefit of modern medicine. Cases such as this demonstrate that even diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating consequences when they strike an immunologically defenseless community."

(A) It is not usually a fatal disease.
It was a lack of knowledge about the disease that make the disease fatal although the disease itself was not fatal actually, hence this option seems logical.

(B) It ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century.
If a disease is no more fatal that doesn't means it is not a problem. This option is extreme.

(C) It is the disease most commonly involved in virgin-soil epidemics.
Most commonly involved? how do we know that it was measles and not the other disease? According to the passage, there are a number of dangerous diseases such as smallpox, measles, malaria, and yellow fever, involve.

(D) It was not a significant problem in Spanish colonies.
It could be or could not be true we don't know.

(E) It affects only those who are immunologically defenseless against it.
Same as (D)

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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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Re: Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old [#permalink]
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