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# Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and

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Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 25 Sep 2019, 23:42
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 120, Date : 01-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and crucial element, the concept, to its definition. With the brazen beginnings of Marcel Duchamp, modern art began to uproot our society's limited conceptions of art and question its very nature. The difference between modern and traditional art could not be more plain. Previously, aesthetic principles and specialized artistic skill were the hallmarks of "good" artwork. Now, unlike the Old Masters, modern artists use their considerable artistic talents to beg the questions of the role of the viewer, the function of the artist in society and what can be deemed art. Some modern artists posit that any object may be considered art as long as it is presented as art. The suggestion that everyday objects or intangible ideas may be considered as artistic as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. However, in eliciting those responses, modern artists achieve their intended goal: to provoke debate as to the nature of art and make the viewer expand his or her conception of art.

Robert Rauschenberg's White Paintings are a series of monochromatic works whose underlying concept exemplifies modern art. As one can expect from their name, the paintings consist of multi-paneled canvases painted white. They represent the antithesis of traditional artistic standards: their creation requires no special artistic skill and their value lies not in their appearance but in the abstract concept they invoke. The color white is the key element to the concept behind their creation. The white paint on the canvas emphasizes its flat, two-dimensional nature. Historically, painting has tried to represent three-dimensional topics on canvas, drawing attention away from the canvas and towards the topic of the painting. The White Paintings do not just acknowledge the flat surface on which they are painted, they make the canvas itself the topic of the work. By drawing attention to the canvas, Rauschenberg succeeds in giving his viewer a radically creative alternative view of art.

1. The author is most likely to agree that which of the following objects would not be considered art by some modern artists?

A) the saliva of the artist contained in jars on display in a gallery
B) realistic paintings by the Old Masters on display in a gallery
C) a goat painted green as part of a highly publicized art show
D) the dust on the floor of an art gallery
E) an empty room which the artist has entitled "Invisible Paintings"

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa?

A) Leonardo da Vinci is considered an Old Master.
B) Viewing the Mona Lisa cannot lead to shock, dismay and disgust.
C) It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
D) It is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas.
E) Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value.

3. Which of the following best describes the relation of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

A) It summarizes the arguments made in the first paragraph.
B) It presents a contrasting point of view to the one presented in the first paragraph.
C) It illustrates the argument made in the first paragraph.
D) It aims to refute the argument of the first paragraph by showing an example
E) It further develops the argument made in the first paragraph.

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Marcel Duchamp?

A. He did not intend to question the nature of art.
B. He created art according to traditional artistic standards.
C. He was inspired by the work of modern artist Robert Rauschenberg.
D. He did not appreciate the works of traditional artists.
E. He employed concepts in his artwork.

5. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about traditional artistic standards?

A. Robert Rauschenberg's White Paintings are considered good art by traditional artistic standards.
B. Traditional artistic standards are based on specialized artistic skill, appearance and the concept behind the work.
C. According to traditional artistic standards, the artist's specialized artistic skills are the key to judging a work of art.
D. Traditional artistic standards judge artwork based not on appearance but on the abstract concept they invoke.
E. Traditional artistic standards dictate that a work of art must conform to certain aesthetic principles but do not rely upon the skills of the artist.

6. According to the author, aesthetic principles and specialized artistic skill are most similar to which of the following?

A. Victorian principles of proper etiquette which have been replaced by modern ones
B. Aristotelian ideas of science which are still used today
C. Renaissance artistic ideals which still inspire artists
D. ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics which are no longer used in writing
E. modern standards of cleanliness

7. The author most likely mentions three-dimensional topics to emphasize

A. the nature of Robert Rauschenberg's painting technique
B. how modern art differs from traditional art
C. the limitations of traditional art
D. the similarities between the White Paintings and traditional art
E. the differences between the White Paintings and traditional art

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Originally posted by LordStark on 17 Feb 2019, 17:53.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 25 Sep 2019, 23:42, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (662).
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01 Apr 2019, 07:55
any idea why option C is correct for question 2?
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Re: Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2019, 16:20
1
1. The author is most likely to agree that which of the following objects would not be considered art by some modern artists?

A) the saliva of the artist contained in jars on display in a gallery - can be considered
B) realistic paintings by the Old Masters on display in a gallery - can be considered
C) a goat painted green as part of a highly publicized art show - can considered
D) the dust on the floor of an art gallery - Cannot be considered
E) an empty room which the artist has entitled "Invisible Paintings" - can be considered

2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa?

A) Leonardo da Vinci is considered an Old Master. - out of scope
B) Viewing the Mona Lisa cannot lead to shock, dismay and disgust. - opposite
C) It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.- POE
D) It is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas. - Inconsistent
E) Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value. - Inconsistent.

3. Which of the following best describes the relation of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

A) It summarizes the arguments made in the first paragraph. - It further explains it
B) It presents a contrasting point of view to the one presented in the first paragraph. It goes with the passage
C) It illustrates the argument made in the first paragraph. - Correct
D) It aims to refute the argument of the first paragraph by showing an example - It goes with the passage
E) It further develops the argument made in the first paragraph. - It does not further develops the argument
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01 Apr 2019, 19:35
1
shubham2312 wrote:
any idea why option C is correct for question 2?

Read the last line of the first paragraph (However, in eliciting those responses, modern artists achieve their intended goal: to provoke debate as to the nature of art and make the viewer expand his or her conception of art).

The second para builds up on this and provides an example besides giving additional info.
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01 Apr 2019, 21:31
4
Q1.
the dust on the floor of an art gallery

Explanation - In the passage, the author says, "Some modern artists posit that any object may be considered art as long as it is presented as art.".
All things mentioned in other options clearly give a cue that those those are being presented as art.

Q2.
It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
The way author draws a comparison between Da Vinci's Mona Lisa and the "mundane" things which can be considered work of art clearly shows that author is considering Mona Lisa as some kind of capstone in the world of art. This clearly gives us Option C as the answer.

Q3.
It illustrates the argument made in the first paragraph.
Explanation:
Since that author develops on his first paragraph by giving a germane example, we can certainly say that author is building his case through illustration. Though E may sound tempting, yet the example of Robert Rauschenberg given in the second paragraph makes option C "more" right.
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02 Apr 2019, 04:20
AjiteshArun
Can you please brief why D and E is wrong in Q2 ?
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08 Apr 2019, 17:46

Quote:
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa?

A) Leonardo da Vinci is considered an Old Master.
B) Viewing the Mona Lisa cannot lead to shock, dismay and disgust.
C) It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
D) It is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas.
E) Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value.

I used below lines from para 1 to pick up the answer and marked E .However, the OA is C.

Quote:
The suggestion that everyday objects or intangible ideas may be considered as artistic as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. However, in eliciting those responses, modern artists achieve their intended goal: to provoke debate as to the nature of art and make the viewer expand his or her conception of art.

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08 Apr 2019, 18:56
2
warrior1991 wrote:

Quote:
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa?

A) Leonardo da Vinci is considered an Old Master.
B) Viewing the Mona Lisa cannot lead to shock, dismay and disgust.
C) It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
D) It is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas.
E) Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value.

I used below lines from para 1 to pick up the answer and marked E .However, the OA is C.

Quote:
The suggestion that everyday objects or intangible ideas may be considered as artistic as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. However, in eliciting those responses, modern artists achieve their intended goal: to provoke debate as to the nature of art and make the viewer expand his or her conception of art.

warrior1991 , you picked the right text. It just got interpreted incorrectly.

This question turns on the definition of artistic as aesthetically pleasing or beautiful.

The Mona Lisa in comparisons is used tacitly as the best example of "artistic"
against which ordinary objects and abstract ideas are compared favorably.

Two groups of people support answer (C).

Modern artists use the Mona Lisa as the example against which to compare
ordinary objects (and to proclaim the latter "artistic").
A wrench is just as artistic (aesthetically pleasing) as the Mona Lisa is.
We can infer that the Mona Lisa is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
The modernists are not comparing a wrench to, say, a sketch of Spongebob.

Further, people react with disgust to the idea that a wrench is as artistic as the painting.
Why do they react that way? Inference: because the Mona Lisa holds a place of indisputable artistic value;
the shock comes from comparing the ordinary to the . . . extraordinary.

Both the use of the painting as the yardstick against which to measure what is artistic
and the horrified reactions in equating the ordinary with the painting allow us to infer that the Mona Lisa

(C) is a work of undisputed high artistic value.

Answer (E), following this logic, is exactly opposite from the truth.

Modern artists use the Mona Lisa as the epitome of "artistic."
I might argue that they overvalue the wrench.
But the modernists do not undervalue the Mona Lisa.

I can see why (E) is tempting. It's a trap.
A person might say, "It is absurd to say that a wrench is as artistic as the Mona Lisa is.
Comparing a wrench to the Mona Lisa is a sign that this person undervalues the painting."

That move is understandable but not correct.

Modernists claim not that the Mona Lisa is not artistic, but rather,
that the ordinary is just as beautiful as the [beautiful] Mona Lisa.

We cannot infer from what we might think is an absurd comparison
that the modernists undervalue the painting.

In fact, if we do so, we have just proven the truth of (C): we, too,
believe that the Mona Lisa is a work of undisputed high artistic value . . .
so high that we should not compare a wrench to a masterpiece.

Modernists do not fail to appreciate the painting's "true value."

To the contrary: modern artists compare ordinary objects or intangible ideas
to the Mona Lisa precisely in order to insist that the former are "artistic."
The Mona Lisa sets the standard, a fact that is reflected in Answer (C).

Hope that helps.
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Re: Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2019, 20:43
warrior1991 wrote:

Quote:
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa?

A) Leonardo da Vinci is considered an Old Master.
B) Viewing the Mona Lisa cannot lead to shock, dismay and disgust.
C) It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
D) It is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas.
E) Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value.

I used below lines from para 1 to pick up the answer and marked E .However, the OA is C.

Quote:
The suggestion that everyday objects or intangible ideas may be considered as artistic as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. However, in eliciting those responses, modern artists achieve their intended goal: to provoke debate as to the nature of art and make the viewer expand his or her conception of art.

So here is the text that refers to "Mona Lisa":
"The suggestion that everyday objects or intangible ideas may be considered as artistic as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. "

1. It is a comparison - "as artistic as" - what follows has to be an epitome of the character.
(Remember that song "Everything at once" - As sly as a fox, as strong as an ox, As fast as a hare, as brave as a bear... )
So when you say "as artistic as Mona Lisa" you consider Mona Lisa to be of undisputed high artistic value.

2. The sentence says that it often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. It does not say that it "should lead to shock etc". It is presenting a fact that it often leads to shock, disgust etc in people.

Now, here is the question: "Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Mona Lisa?"

A) Leonardo da Vinci is considered an Old Master.
Not implied in the passage.

B) Viewing the Mona Lisa cannot lead to shock, dismay and disgust.
"cannot" is a strong word. For someone, it may lead to shock, disgust etc.

C) It is a work of undisputed high artistic value.
Correct

D) It is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas.
The author does not say that. He only says how people react when they hear that everyday objects may be considered as artistic as Mona Lisa.

E) Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value.
Again, the author does not give his opinion so the argument does not say that artists who consider everyday objects to be as artistic as Mona Lisa are wrong. The argument only tells us how people react when they hear the comparison suggested by modern artists.
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Re: Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2019, 21:17
1
teaserbae wrote:
AjiteshArun
Can you please brief why D and E is wrong in Q2 ?
Option D says that the Mona Lisa "is more artistic than everyday objects or intangible ideas".

However, we can't say whether the Mona Lisa is more or less "artistic" than everyday objects on the basis of the fact that many people often think that it is (what about other people?). That is, there is disagreement among people.

Some people think that everyday objects are not art. These people are likely to think that the Mona Lisa is more artistic than everyday objects. However, some modern artists think that even everyday objects can be art, and we don't know whether they would "rank" the Mona Lisa higher than "everyday objects or intangible ideas".

warrior1991 wrote:
I used below lines from para 1 to pick up the answer and marked E .However, the OA is C.

Quote:
The suggestion that everyday objects or intangible ideas may be considered as artistic as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa often leads to shock, dismay and disgust. However, in eliciting those responses, modern artists achieve their intended goal: to provoke debate as to the nature of art and make the viewer expand his or her conception of art.
Option E is:

"Artists who consider everyday objects or intangible ideas to be as artistic as the Mona Lisa do not appreciate its true value."

There is no indication at all that these artists don't appreciate the Mona Lisa as much as they "should". It's just that they think (and want other people to think about whether) everyday objects can also be as artistic as the Mona Lisa. So it's not as if they appreciate the Mona Lisa less than they should. They just consider everyday objects more artistic than many other people do.

Coming to the OA (C), I don't think the passage provides enough information to say that the Mona Lisa is of "undisputed high artistic value". I get what VeritasKarishma says about the comparison, and the author's intention certainly seems to be to introduce an example of something that is at least widely considered to be of great artistic value, so I'd mark this option if I had to do this question. However, there doesn't seem to be anything in the passage to suggest that everyone would consider the Mona Lisa to be of high artistic value.
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Re: Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 22:49

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Marcel Duchamp?

A. He did not intend to question the nature of art.
B. He created art according to traditional artistic standards.
C. He was inspired by the work of modern artist Robert Rauschenberg.
D. He did not appreciate the works of traditional artists.
E. He employed concepts in his artwork.

Spoiler: :: OA
E

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about traditional artistic standards?

A. Robert Rauschenberg's White Paintings are considered good art by traditional artistic standards.
B. Traditional artistic standards are based on specialized artistic skill, appearance and the concept behind the work.
C. According to traditional artistic standards, the artist's specialized artistic skills are the key to judging a work of art.
D. Traditional artistic standards judge artwork based not on appearance but on the abstract concept they invoke.
E. Traditional artistic standards dictate that a work of art must conform to certain aesthetic principles but do not rely upon the skills of the artist.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

According to the author, aesthetic principles and specialized artistic skill are most similar to which of the following?

A. Victorian principles of proper etiquette which have been replaced by modern ones
B. Aristotelian ideas of science which are still used today
C. Renaissance artistic ideals which still inspire artists
D. ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics which are no longer used in writing
E. modern standards of cleanliness

Spoiler: :: OA
A

The author most likely mentions three-dimensional topics to emphasize

A. the nature of Robert Rauschenberg's painting technique
B. how modern art differs from traditional art
C. the limitations of traditional art
D. the similarities between the White Paintings and traditional art
E. the differences between the White Paintings and traditional art

Spoiler: :: OA
E

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24 Sep 2019, 23:01

TheEconomistGMAT wrote:

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about Marcel Duchamp?

A. He did not intend to question the nature of art.
B. He created art according to traditional artistic standards.
C. He was inspired by the work of modern artist Robert Rauschenberg.
D. He did not appreciate the works of traditional artists.
E. He employed concepts in his artwork.

Spoiler: :: OA
E

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about traditional artistic standards?

A. Robert Rauschenberg's White Paintings are considered good art by traditional artistic standards.
B. Traditional artistic standards are based on specialized artistic skill, appearance and the concept behind the work.
C. According to traditional artistic standards, the artist's specialized artistic skills are the key to judging a work of art.
D. Traditional artistic standards judge artwork based not on appearance but on the abstract concept they invoke.
E. Traditional artistic standards dictate that a work of art must conform to certain aesthetic principles but do not rely upon the skills of the artist.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

According to the author, aesthetic principles and specialized artistic skill are most similar to which of the following?

A. Victorian principles of proper etiquette which have been replaced by modern ones
B. Aristotelian ideas of science which are still used today
C. Renaissance artistic ideals which still inspire artists
D. ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics which are no longer used in writing
E. modern standards of cleanliness

Spoiler: :: OA
A

The author most likely mentions three-dimensional topics to emphasize

A. the nature of Robert Rauschenberg's painting technique
B. how modern art differs from traditional art
C. the limitations of traditional art
D. the similarities between the White Paintings and traditional art
E. the differences between the White Paintings and traditional art

Spoiler: :: OA
E

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Re: Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2019, 20:23
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26 Sep 2019, 21:53
Pl. Someone tell about question 7

Posted from my mobile device
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28 Sep 2019, 04:44
yatharthdas wrote:
Pl. Someone tell about question 7

Posted from my mobile device

This is a Detail Function question. This means that in addition to the Initial Reading, we also need to read the fifth and sixth sentences of the second paragraph, where the author mentions three-dimensional topics:

The white paint on the canvas emphasizes its flat, two-dimensional nature. Historically, painting has tried to represent three-dimensional topics on canvas, drawing attention away from the canvas and towards the topic of the painting.

These sentences tell us that the White Paintings call attention to the flat nature of the canvas, while in the past, the goal of traditional art has been to take the viewer's attention away from this fact. The passage states that the White Paintings emphasize the two-dimensional nature of the canvas, while in the past, traditional art has tried to do the exact opposite.

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29 Sep 2019, 09:29
In Question 5, why is the OA C and not B? cannot find a strong enough reason to eliminate B
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02 Oct 2019, 03:28
Kritisood wrote:
In Question 5, why is the OA C and not B? cannot find a strong enough reason to eliminate B

This is a Detail question. In addition to our Initial Reading, we need to read the third sentence of the second paragraph, in which traditional artistic standards are mentioned.

They represent the antithesis of traditional artistic standards: their creation requires no special artistic skill and their value lies not in their appearance but in the abstract concept they invoke.

The passage gives us information only about the antithesis, or opposite, of traditional artistic standards. Therefore, by taking the opposite of the qualities described, we can arrive at a description of traditional artistic standards:

• They are based on specialized skills of the artist
• They judge artwork based on its appearance
• They are not based on abstract concept.
• The passage states that traditional artistic standards judge artwork on the specialized skill of the artist. This answer choice is not perfect, as it notes only the skill and omits the appearance, but it's the only one which isn't flawed or incorrect.

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Re: Modern art challenges our understanding of art by adding a new and   [#permalink] 02 Oct 2019, 03:28