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Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only [#permalink]
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Why E is wrong?, if apply negation test on E conclusion falls apart. can someone share the detailed expalnation
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only [#permalink]
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atulindia wrote:
Why E is wrong?, if apply negation test on E conclusion falls apart. can someone share the detailed expalnation

Not really.

I too selected E. But if you look closer you will find that heat generation per se has nothing to the with the conclusion, but rather one of the premises.

In Assumption, the conclusion MUST be true. So even though option E is true for one of the premise, it is not necessarily true for the conclusion.

The negation test for option A affirms this.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only [#permalink]
If E is negated, clearly I see the conclusion shattering.
But I need explanation how am I failing to negate A?

Please can an expert intervene

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only [#permalink]
i am struck with options with option 'E',can you please explain how to choose 'A'
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only [#permalink]
Can someone please explain why .... 'E' is wrong..

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Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only [#permalink]
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atulindia wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only to disperse heat generated in activities. This heat is generated only because humans move their limbs. Thus orthopedics’ recent discovery that the ancient humans Neanderthals had similar networks of blood vessels in the arteries of their bodies provides evidence for the hypothesis that Neanderthals moved their limbs, just as humans do.

The argument in the passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

A. Neanderthals would not have had networks of blood vessels in the arteries of their bodies if these networks were of no use to Neanderthals.

B. All creatures that moved around by flapping their limbs have networks of blood vessels in the arteries of their bodies.

C. Ancient humans who moved their limbs in flight would have been able to fly more effectively than those humans who did not move their limbs.

D. If Neanderthals moved around by moving their limbs , then orthopedics would certainly be able to find some evidence that they did so.

E. Heat generated by Neanderthals in moving their limbs in motion could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in their arteries

In an argument, an assumption is information necessary for connecting that argument's evidence to that argument's conclusion.

So, let's identify the conclusion and evidence.

Conclusion: Neanderthals moved their limbs, just as humans do.

Premise: Networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only to disperse heat generated in activities.

Premise: This heat is generated only because humans move their limbs.

Premise: Neanderthals had similar networks of blood vessels in the arteries of their bodies.

The logic of the argument is based on the fact that networks of blood vessels in humans’ arteries serve only to disperse heat generated in activities. So, these blood vessels (supposedly) have no other function. Thus, it follows that, if Neanderthals had blood vessels, they must have had heat to disperse, and that, therefore, it is likely that Neanderthals generated heat by moving their limbs.

Quote:
A. Neanderthals would not have had networks of blood vessels in the arteries of their bodies if these networks were of no use to Neanderthals.

What this choice says is an assumption necessary for connecting the premises to the conclusion. If what this choice says were not true, then the support for the conclusion would be questionable, because, in that case, it could be that Neanderthals had such blood vessels for no reason at all, and so, the fact that they had blood vessels would not clearly indicate that they moved their limbs.

Quote:
B. All creatures that moved around by flapping their limbs have networks of blood vessels in the arteries of their bodies.

We don't need to assume what this choice says. The connection we need to make is between Neanderthals' having the blood vessels and Neanderthals' moving their limbs. This choice goes in the reverse direction, making a connection between moving limbs and having arteries.

Quote:
C. Ancient humans who moved their limbs in flight would have been able to fly more effectively than those humans who did not move their limbs.

This choice may strengthen the support for the conclusion that Neanderthals' moved their limbs but is not an assumption necessary for connecting the evidence that we already have to the conclusion of this argument.

Quote:
D. If Neanderthals moved around by moving their limbs , then orthopedics would certainly be able to find some evidence that they did so.

We don't need to assume that people would find evidence to connect the evidence that they have found to the conclusion of this argument.

Quote:
E. Heat generated by Neanderthals in moving their limbs in motion could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in their arteries.

What this choice says goes in the wrong direction. We need something that connects the fact that Neanderthals had blood vessels to the conclusion that they moved their limbs. This choice suggests that, if Neanderthals did move their limbs, any heat generated by the Neanderthal's moving their limbs must have been dispersed by blood vessels.

Does this assumption have to be correct in order for the argument to work? No. Even if Neanderthals had other ways in which to disperse heat, the fact that they had blood vessels could indicate that they had heat to disperse and that, therefore, it's likely that they moved their limbs.

The only choice that is necessary for connecting the evidence to the conclusion is (A).
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans arteries serve only [#permalink]
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in humans arteries serve only [#permalink]
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