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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2014, 00:57
I find no proper explanation for this question.

a hard one.

we have 3 modifier and 1 noun.

The best way to express this is the order in choice A : the noun is in between the two do-ed phrases. in C, D and E, the 3 modifiers are at one side of the noun, creating unclearness.

in choice B, we have 3 do-ed modifiers. I think it is better to use two do-ed phrase and one "which clause" because this is more clear.
normally, do-ed phrase should modifiy the noun following, so putting two do-ed phrase together, though this putting is grammatical because the two do-ed phrases belong to different kinds, can make unclearness. putting two do-ed phrases together without "and" feels that the first do-ed phrase modifies the second do-ed phrase. this is not good.

in this problem, I thing gmat test us another preference, not an absolute rule, " avoid putting two do-ed modifiers together".
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2014, 03:31
egmat wrote:
kuttingchai wrote:
agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???



Hi there,

Let us split choice C into clauses:

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
• A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
o which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
• (Cont. of Cl. 1) is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

“developed” is not a verb here. It’s a verb-ed modifier. The only verb that clause 1 has is “is finding”. (Click on the following link to learn how to distinguish between a past tense verb and verb-ed modifier: ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html#p1100855)

In choice C, “called proton-induced x-ray emission” has been separated from the entity it should modify – “a technique”. As a result, relative pronoun “which” is now only modifying the preceding noun “proton-induced x-ray emission”. It is not modifying “a technique” anymore. This leads to the modification error in Choice C.

Same is the case with Choice D as well.

Now let’s take a look at the correct Choice A:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

In this sentence, the opening modifier “developed” is correctly modifying the subject of the preceding clause “a technique”. Now another modifier “called…” is placed just after “a technique”. So here the sentence is really saying:
a technique = proton-induced X-ray emission
“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” makes one big noun phrase here and hence, “which” correctly modifies this entire noun phrase, including “a technique”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha


Shraddha has explained it very well. But, I still have doubt on "which" modifier usage in option C and D. According to OG - "which" modifier is modifying the word emission. But, why can't which modifier modify the whole "proton induced X-ray emission". Per Shraddha's note - which in C and D is modifying the whole "proton induced X-ray emission". But if it is indeed modifying the whole, then why are these choices incorrect because "proton induced X-ray emission" is indeed the TECHNIQUE which we want to modify. Does it make a difference if we modify "TECHNIQUE" or ""proton induced X-ray emission".

Reply appreciated.

Thanks!
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2015, 01:43
very hard question for who targeting 40 verbal, targeting 750.

one of the important point is to realize the lession/rule GMAT want to teach us from the OA.

in choice B, "developed" and "having" are not neccessary to be parallel. So, the use of "and" is not compulsory. in other words, the no "and" use is correct.

the main point here is that when there is many, 3 modifers of a noun, what do we do.

the rule is
we can put "which clause" far from the noun modified, with the condition that between the noun and "which clause is a noun modifier, and we put other modifiers such as do-ed phrase, doing phrase or prepositional phrase touching the noun modified.

this rule would be considered simple if it is declared by GMAT, but if we have to infer the rule, the rule become difficult.

this problem is at the end of og 11,so, it is condidered very hard. I will not study this problem

if you like my explanation, give me a kudos.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2015, 04:56
Quote:


Actually I think that "which" modifies "technique", which would make sense to me. In that case, "called proton-induced x-ray emission" is kind of an adjective that gives more detail to "technique".
What do you think about that?


I agree that "which" modifies technique. I just started studying SC seriously so this may not be 100% correct, but I would agree with noboru's second point that "called proton-induced x-ray emission" is an adjectival phrase.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2016, 04:15
I might be wrong here, but shouldn't the sentence have "to detect" instead of "for detecting".

"to detect" will clearly highlight the purpose.

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called [#permalink]

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called [#permalink]

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tejal777 wrote:
[url]Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it[/url], is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,


-ed form modifies the closest noun. So 'called' must modify 'technique'. C, D and E are out.

'Originally developed for detecting air pollutants' and 'having the ability to analyze the chemical elements' are two modifies of 'a technique'. Either both should be closer to 'technique' or must be connected with a proper conjunction. It is lacking in option B.

Hence A is the answer
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2016, 08:52
I guess A is grammatically correct, but it sounds really awkward.

I have never seen anybody write: Something called A, which can do stuff, does something else.

Weird sentence.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2016, 11:47
Thanks.This explanation was crisp :)

ankurgupta03 wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks


Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong.

hope it helps!!

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2016, 04:16
tejal777 wrote:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it[/url], is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,


B) is 'Having' modify 'a technique' or 'air pollutants'? I'm not sure, B is out.
C)'which' wrongly modify 'x-ray emission'. also there are another problem in C (e.g., 'ability' is used only for human being not for any 'tools'). Another problem is: there is no need to use comma before 'called'
D) Same as 'C'
E) 'tool' can not have the 'ability'; it is used for human being.
So, A wins
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2016, 09:47
gmatpunjabi wrote:
OG16 SC122

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,


In C, 'which' modify 'x-ray emission'. 'x-ray emission' can't quickly analyze the chemical elements, 'A technique' does, right? So, for that reason, C is wrong. C is also wrong because it used comma before 'called'.
But, in A, 'which' also modify 'x-ray emission'. How ' x-ray emission' quickly analyze the chemical elements?
Thanks...
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 02:53
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 03:02
warriorguy wrote:
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?


In A, both the modifiers are clearly modifying the technique without any ambiguity.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 04:56
abhimahna wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?


In A, both the modifiers are clearly modifying the technique without any ambiguity.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,



I don't think the second modifier is modifying the technique. Or is it? Lol. I was under the impression that which will modify the noun it touches.

So the first part modifies technique and second part modifies emission or x-ray emission.

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2016, 01:36
Well, in this case "proton-induced x-ray emission" is the name of the technique, so it's all the same. Similarly, if a sentence began "A man named Larry, who . . . ," we wouldn't have to worry about whether "who" modified "man" or "Larry."
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2016, 05:38
Hi experts,
sometimes, I am still confused that what does "comma which" modify, for this case, I wanna deep discuss the "comma which" modifier, purely discuss it , based on grammar rather than other errors.

Please review C,
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

here, called proton-induced X-ray emission is a modifier and set off by a pair of comma, this structure means that called proton-induced X-ray emission is a non vital modifier, so I can split it , then the simple version is :

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

we can figure out which modifier follows air pollutants and is without comma, generally, which modifier follows a comma,-- this is error 1
when I split it, which modifies preceding noun "air pollutants", -- this is error 2 -- nonsense.

my question is :
1/
cross off it because error 1 -- without comma before which,
does this reasoning apply to GMAT SC as a reason to cross off ?

2/
non vital modifier set off by a pair of commas, then the simple version will be which modifier follows a noun/noun phrase, in this case, which modifier modifies air pollutants,
Does this condition imply which modifier can jump over the non vital modifier and then modify the preceding noun if the meaning is logical ? what's the role of which modifier? is it still a non vital modifier? (because i know, comma which modifier is general non vital modifier.

genuinely wanna your help, especial @Mike's :P

have a nice day.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2016, 11:24
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,
sometimes, I am still confused that what does "comma which" modify, for this case, I wanna deep discuss the "comma which" modifier, purely discuss it , based on grammar rather than other errors.

Please review C,
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

here, called proton-induced X-ray emission is a modifier and set off by a pair of comma, this structure means that called proton-induced X-ray emission is a non vital modifier, so I can split it , then the simple version is :

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

we can figure out which modifier follows air pollutants and is without comma, generally, which modifier follows a comma,-- this is error 1
when I split it, which modifies preceding noun "air pollutants", -- this is error 2 -- nonsense.

my question is :
1/
cross off it because error 1 -- without comma before which,
does this reasoning apply to GMAT SC as a reason to cross off ?

2/
non vital modifier set off by a pair of commas, then the simple version will be which modifier follows a noun/noun phrase, in this case, which modifier modifies air pollutants,
Does this condition imply which modifier can jump over the non vital modifier and then modify the preceding noun if the meaning is logical ? what's the role of which modifier? is it still a non vital modifier? (because i know, comma which modifier is general non vital modifier.

genuinely wanna your help, especial @Mike's :P

have a nice day.
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,

My friend, I hope you are well. I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I am going to say two things:
1) Please stop picking incorrect answers to GMAT SC questions and asking about the grammar of them. These are incorrect because they are flawed, often in more than one way. If you want to understand correct grammar, only pick correct answer as examples about which to ask.
2) You are looking for mathematical rules for how modifiers behave. Modifiers depend on logic and meaning, and these don't follow clean neat patterns.

You may be familiar with ancient Chinese Daoist master Laozi. His Daodejing begins with the sentence:
Attachment:
Daodejing, first sentence.jpg
Daodejing, first sentence.jpg [ 28.76 KiB | Viewed 612 times ]

Roughly, we could say that this implies that patterns of meaning, whether in GMAT SC or in the larger questions of life, do not follow fixed rigid mathematical patterns.

Does all this make sense?

Take very good care of yourself, my friend.

Mike :-)
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2016, 00:28
(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

In this choice modifiers "Originally developed for detecting air pollutants" and "having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it" both refer to a technique called proton induced x-ray emission. However it seems ambiguous

My question is "Is it possible to have 2 back to back modifier modify the clause"
Modifier, Modifier, Clause --> Is this construction allowed?

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2016, 08:23
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission
The structure: Modifier, Modifier, Subject... is not a strong choice. The modifier(s) of a subject must be placed close to the subject.

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Verb-ed modifier error - 'called' seems to modify 'pollutants'

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
Verb-ed modifier error - 'called' seems to modify 'pollutants'

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
Verb-ed modifier error - 'called' seems to modify 'substance'

Thus, I chose option A.

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 07:05
12/27/16. LA. Manhattan GMAT SC Navigator Explanation. Modifier. There are a number of modifiers: "Originally developed…", "called proton-induced X-rays…", and "which can quickly analyze the chemical elements…" = all of the three modifiers refer back to the subject "the technique". Out of the 3 modifiers, the only essential modifier is "called proton-induced X-rays" and this noun modifier should be close to the main clause "technique". C, D and E are out.

Split2) Modifier. "Ability" word in the sentence "machines do not have the ability" is wrong. What sort of things have ability = human beings. The word "ability" is closely attached to living things such as human beings. We cannot attibute "abilities" to a machine, this is not a correct meaning. B,D and E are out.

Split3) Modifier "which" - vita modifier exemption to the touch rule. the noun modifier that starts with "which" must be close to the noun it modifies "technique." See the sentence "a technique called proton-induced x-ray emissions, which can quickly analyze the chemical..." => "which..." is a noun modifier that modifies "technique". The modifier "...called proton-induced X-ray emission" is a vita modifier => exception to the modifier rule = a vital modifier can come between the noun and the modified noun. A is right.

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a   [#permalink] 27 Dec 2016, 07:05

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