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# Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha

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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths than in shallow coastal waters, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and makes them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether they be archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver.

(A) than in shallow coastal waters, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and makes them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether they be
they be-achaeologist - Completely illogical

(B) than in shallow coastal waters, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and are accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether
Looks good , Keep it

(C) as opposed to shallow waters along the coast, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including
including ......or.... Error found. C is out

(D) instead of in shallow waters along the coast, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and making them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including an
Coast is a place . We cannot use which to represent Coast. D is out

(E) instead of shallow coastal waters, because it exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and make them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether
it - ambiguous. E is out .

Answer is B , so far so good.
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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
Quote:
(C) as opposed to shallow waters along the coast, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including

The last part of the sentence doesn’t seem quite right, because the examples introduced by “including” would have to be plural, and they aren’t (“archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver”). [/quote]

GMATNinja please could you explain why what follows after "including" must be plural??
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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
Hoozan wrote:
Quote:
(C) as opposed to shallow waters along the coast, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including

The last part of the sentence doesn’t seem quite right, because the examples introduced by “including” would have to be plural, and they aren’t (“archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver”).

GMATNinja please could you explain why what follows after "including" must be plural??

To be clear, "including" doesn't always have to introduce more than one entity, but in this case, it's preceded by the phrase "accessible to anyone." Well, it stands to reason that we're about to get more than one example, as "anyone" consists of lots of different types of people, right?

So don't try to internalize a rule here about how "including" works. This is just another instance of using context to determine what would be logical in a given sentence.

I hope that clears things up!
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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
Quote:
Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths than in shallow coastal waters, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and makes them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether they be archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver.

(A) than in shallow coastal waters, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and makes them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether they be

(B) than in shallow coastal waters, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and are accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether

(C) as opposed to ...

One essential idiom that everyone must know is MORE-THAN.
Where there is a MORE, there will also be a THAN (almost always*), otherwise the comparison is likely to be either unclear, incomplete or unidiomatic.

We can eliminate C, D, and E because of the non-standard idiom. That leaves us with A and B.
The problem in A is the WHICH. What does WHICH refer to? That's not clear. B has no problem, and B is the answer.

*Here is an example of a ​good sentence that has a MORE but no THAN.
Tom did a lot, but Harry did MORE.
In this sentence it is clear that Harry did more than Tom did, and the sentence is perfectly acceptable.

Nobody can learn all the idioms that could appear in the GMAT, and trying to do so is a waste of time. However, some idioms are essential and really useful.

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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
GMATNinja wrote:
I kind of hate this question, and that’s exactly why we chose it for the QOTD. We’re trying to emphasize the tougher ones these days, questions that revolve around more than just cut-and-dried grammar rules. (Did you notice my use of a clunky absolute phrase there? I never use them in real life, but the GMAT likes them.) All of the 2017 QOTDs are available here.

Quote:
(A) than in shallow coastal waters, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and makes them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether they be

This one is pleasantly easy to eliminate. “…which exposes archaeological remains…” is trying to modify “shallow coastal waters”, and that doesn’t work: “shallow coastal waters… exposes… and makes…” Subject-verb fail. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) than in shallow coastal waters, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and are accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether

The first part of the underlined portion looks great: “where remains are exposed to turbulence” modifies “shallow coastal waters.” The parallelism “are exposed… and are accessible” is fine, too.

But woah, WTF is going on with that mess at the end? “… anyone in scuba gear, whether archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver.” That sounds like hot, hot garbage.

Trouble is, I can’t tell you that it’s wrong. As you’ve probably read, “sounding bad” isn’t a crime on SC.

And now that I think about it, I guess it makes decent sense: “anyone in scuba gear, whether archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver.” It would sound better to me if it said “whether they are archaeologists, treasure hunters, or sport divers”, but the meaning seems fine the way they wrote it – and again, “sound” doesn’t matter. Sure, it’s a weird, archaic-sounding turn of phrase, but it’s not illogical.

Crap, I guess we have to keep (B). I’ll be annoyed if it’s the right answer.

Quote:
(C) as opposed to shallow waters along the coast, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including

The last part of the sentence doesn’t seem quite right, because the examples introduced by “including” would have to be plural, and they aren’t (“archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver”).

More importantly, they’ve mixed a couple of different comparison idioms together, and it simply doesn’t work: “Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths as opposed to shallow waters…” Lol, wut? “…more likely as opposed to…” No way. It’s “more likely than,” not “more likely as opposed to.” (C) is gone.

Quote:
(D) instead of in shallow waters along the coast, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and making them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including an

The “which” catches my eye. “Which” could refer to “the coast”, but that wouldn’t make any sense: “the coast… exposes archaeological remains to turbulence.” No, the remains are exposed because the waters are shallow.

OK, so what if the “which” reaches back behind the preposition, and modifies the entire phrase “shallow waters along the coast”? (See our article on “that” for more on these sorts of situations.) Trouble is, the subject-verb agreement wouldn't work: “shallow waters… exposes…”

I’m also not crazy about the use of “instead of” or the fact that the examples of people in scuba gear are all singular. (D) is definitely out.

Quote:
(E) instead of shallow coastal waters, because it exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and make them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether

The “it” has absolutely no referent at all, since there are no singular nouns earlier in the sentence. (E) is gone.

Holy poop on a stick, we’re left with (B). If you relied on your ear on this one, you probably got it wrong. But if you stayed disciplined and looked for DEFINITE errors first, you probably got rid of the other answer choices in a big hurry. Sure, the right answer is a stinking turd of a sentence, but it’s still the right answer.

Hi GMATNinja . Could you please explain why "including" in options C and D should be followed by plural examples ? Thank you
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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
UserMaple5 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
I kind of hate this question, and that’s exactly why we chose it for the QOTD. We’re trying to emphasize the tougher ones these days, questions that revolve around more than just cut-and-dried grammar rules. (Did you notice my use of a clunky absolute phrase there? I never use them in real life, but the GMAT likes them.) All of the 2017 QOTDs are available here.

Quote:
(A) than in shallow coastal waters, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and makes them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether they be

This one is pleasantly easy to eliminate. “…which exposes archaeological remains…” is trying to modify “shallow coastal waters”, and that doesn’t work: “shallow coastal waters… exposes… and makes…” Subject-verb fail. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) than in shallow coastal waters, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and are accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether

The first part of the underlined portion looks great: “where remains are exposed to turbulence” modifies “shallow coastal waters.” The parallelism “are exposed… and are accessible” is fine, too.

But woah, WTF is going on with that mess at the end? “… anyone in scuba gear, whether archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver.” That sounds like hot, hot garbage.

Trouble is, I can’t tell you that it’s wrong. As you’ve probably read, “sounding bad” isn’t a crime on SC.

And now that I think about it, I guess it makes decent sense: “anyone in scuba gear, whether archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver.” It would sound better to me if it said “whether they are archaeologists, treasure hunters, or sport divers”, but the meaning seems fine the way they wrote it – and again, “sound” doesn’t matter. Sure, it’s a weird, archaic-sounding turn of phrase, but it’s not illogical.

Crap, I guess we have to keep (B). I’ll be annoyed if it’s the right answer.

Quote:
(C) as opposed to shallow waters along the coast, where archaeological remains are exposed to turbulence and accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including

The last part of the sentence doesn’t seem quite right, because the examples introduced by “including” would have to be plural, and they aren’t (“archaeologist, treasure hunter, or sport diver”).

More importantly, they’ve mixed a couple of different comparison idioms together, and it simply doesn’t work: “Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths as opposed to shallow waters…” Lol, wut? “…more likely as opposed to…” No way. It’s “more likely than,” not “more likely as opposed to.” (C) is gone.

Quote:
(D) instead of in shallow waters along the coast, which exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and making them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including an

The “which” catches my eye. “Which” could refer to “the coast”, but that wouldn’t make any sense: “the coast… exposes archaeological remains to turbulence.” No, the remains are exposed because the waters are shallow.

OK, so what if the “which” reaches back behind the preposition, and modifies the entire phrase “shallow waters along the coast”? (See our article on “that” for more on these sorts of situations.) Trouble is, the subject-verb agreement wouldn't work: “shallow waters… exposes…”

I’m also not crazy about the use of “instead of” or the fact that the examples of people in scuba gear are all singular. (D) is definitely out.

Quote:
(E) instead of shallow coastal waters, because it exposes archaeological remains to turbulence and make them accessible to anyone in scuba gear, whether

The “it” has absolutely no referent at all, since there are no singular nouns earlier in the sentence. (E) is gone.

Holy poop on a stick, we’re left with (B). If you relied on your ear on this one, you probably got it wrong. But if you stayed disciplined and looked for DEFINITE errors first, you probably got rid of the other answer choices in a big hurry. Sure, the right answer is a stinking turd of a sentence, but it’s still the right answer.

Hi GMATNinja . Could you please explain why "including" in options C and D should be followed by plural examples ? Thank you

Hello UserMaple5,

We hope this finds you well.

To answer your query, in Options C and D the use of the pronoun phrase"accessible to anyone in scuba gear" implies that "anyone" is a plural pronoun, but the only possible antecedents for this pronoun are “archaeologist", "treasure hunter", and "sport diver” which are all singular.

We hope this helps.
All the best!
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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
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UserMaple5 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja . Could you please explain why "including" in options C and D should be followed by plural examples ? Thank you

We touched on this point a bit earlier in the thread: https://gmatclub.com/forum/shipwrecks-a ... l#p2941400.

Consider these two examples:

• "The data is available to all medical professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses." - The data is available to a broad group of people (medical professionals). The data is, therefore, available to the various sub-groups of people that fall under the category of "medical professionals"--but we're trying to indicate that ANY physician/pharmacist/nurse can access the data (not just one single physician/pharmacist/nurse), so the plural is appropriate in this context.
• "The data is available to all medical professionals, including my neighbor Tim, who's a bit crazy." - This sentence is highlighting the fact that the data is available to one specific person, so a singular noun makes sense.

Now take a look at this simplified portion of (C):

"Archaeological remains are accessible to anyone in scuba gear, including archaeologist." - Are we talking about just ONE archaeologist here? If so, why is there no article ("including an archaeologist" or "including the archaeologist")? More importantly, if we're trying to say that anyone can access the remains, it wouldn't really make sense to refer to only one single archaeologist. ANYONE can access the remains, and that includes ANY archaeologist, not just one single archaeologist.

In short, you have to think about logic and meaning. Given the context in choice (C), the singular nouns don't make any sense.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
One elimination basis that has not been mentioned is the faulty meaning that results when one uses “comma + which” in answers A and D.

“…….instead of in shallow waters along the coast, which exposes……”

While the easiest elimination point is to notice the Subject-Verb agreement error, the meaning that results from using the active voice is illogical.

To say that the “shallow waters along the coast” or the “shallow coastal waters” are EXPOSING the remains is not quite right.

Instead, this is an area WHERE the remains are exposed.

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Re: Shipwrecks are more likely to be found undisturbed at great depths tha [#permalink]
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