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Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending

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Re: Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2014, 09:16
DenisSh wrote:
amitgovin wrote:
What does "it" refer to in answer A? I think that "it" refers to proportion, right? If so, does that necessarily make answer A wrong? Please explain why B and not A. thanks.


Option (A) wrongly introduces another clause (subject + verb) while option (B) just correctly modifies 'television costs' (subordinate phrase).

In addition, remember the standard pattern for comparisons: X is less than Y, NOT X is less than it is Y.

Just try to 'throw away' all words between 'costs' and 'a greater proportion'.
DenisSh/Shraddha, I really need some help on this.
To make sentence structure simple, I am replacing some of the terms in following fashion.
Z= Soaring television costs
more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992 = 50%

Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

I am confused with the structure of highlighted portion of the sentence. It looks like a phrase(not sure if it is an absolute phrase). Shouldn't the highlighted portion should have something to compare with?
I mean I would have been happy with sentence. Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.
But, extra appendage of stroked out part is making me nuts as we dont have any thing to compare with.
To be frank, shouldn't we expect another noun entity to compare after than next to greater proportion. I am providing the exact sentence structure below as expected.
Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than Y.
This Y could be 30% and sentence would still be correct.

And this is where I am stuck. I don't see any thing(Y) to compare after than in choice B with just in any previous election and no noun form to compare with the earlier noun "a greater proportion".

Let me know where my line of thinking to reduce sentence as above and expected behavior wrt than is wrong.
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New post 15 Jan 2014, 10:20
1
joshnsit wrote:
I really need some help on this.
To make sentence structure simple, I am replacing some of the terms in following fashion.
Z= Soaring television costs
more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992 = 50%

Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

I am confused with the structure of highlighted portion of the sentence. It looks like a phrase(not sure if it is an absolute phrase). Shouldn't the highlighted portion should have something to compare with?
I mean I would have been happy with sentence. Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.
But, extra appendage of stroked out part is making me nuts as we dont have any thing to compare with.
To be frank, shouldn't we expect another noun entity to compare after than next to greater proportion. I am providing the exact sentence structure below as expected.
Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than Y.
This Y could be 30% and sentence would still be correct.

And this is where I am stuck. I don't see any thing(Y) to compare after than in choice B with just in any previous election and no noun form to compare with the earlier noun "a greater proportion".

Let me know where my line of thinking to reduce sentence as above and expected behavior wrt than is wrong.

Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

Now, if we just look at the portion that contains the comparison, the structure is:

50% (was) a greater proportion than in any previous election.

If we look at it, the comparison operator is actually “greater than”. So, we can actually rephrase the sentence as:

50% (was) a proportion greater than in any previous election.

So, the only way to interpret this sentence would be:

50% (was) a proportion greater than (proportion) in any previous election (was).

This is a correct sentence. The key is that the right hand side of “than” should be converted into a clause (means it should have a “verb”, for example, in this case “was”).
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New post 15 Jan 2014, 12:19
ayushman wrote:
joshnsit wrote:
I really need some help on this.
To make sentence structure simple, I am replacing some of the terms in following fashion.
Z= Soaring television costs
more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992 = 50%

Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

I am confused with the structure of highlighted portion of the sentence. It looks like a phrase(not sure if it is an absolute phrase). Shouldn't the highlighted portion should have something to compare with?
I mean I would have been happy with sentence. Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.
But, extra appendage of stroked out part is making me nuts as we dont have any thing to compare with.
To be frank, shouldn't we expect another noun entity to compare after than next to greater proportion. I am providing the exact sentence structure below as expected.
Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than Y.
This Y could be 30% and sentence would still be correct.

And this is where I am stuck. I don't see any thing(Y) to compare after than in choice B with just in any previous election and no noun form to compare with the earlier noun "a greater proportion".

Let me know where my line of thinking to reduce sentence as above and expected behavior wrt than is wrong.

Z accounted for 50%, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

Now, if we just look at the portion that contains the comparison, the structure is:

50% (was) a greater proportion than in any previous election.

If we look at it, the comparison operator is actually “greater than”. So, we can actually rephrase the sentence as:

50% (was) a proportion greater than in any previous election.

So, the only way to interpret this sentence would be:

50% (was) a proportion greater than (proportion) in any previous election (was).

This is a correct sentence. The key is that the right hand side of “than” should be converted into a clause (means it should have a “verb”, for example, in this case “was”).
ayushman, I doubt that verb ellipsis is at play here because even the first verb is missing to give rise to ellipsis. But, my problem is least on the verb ellipsis (around the was as indicated by you in green) here.

50% (was) a proportion greater than (proportion) in any previous election (was).
I am more concerned about noun ellipsis(red part). A noun ellipsis demands presence of an adjective or a pronoun to work. I believe one simply cant remove the presence of second subject noun for ellipsis to work for nouns, though I would love to be disputed with some examples. Some links here for noun ellipsis.
https://sites.google.com/site/agrammaro ... /1-5/1-5-2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noun_ellipsis
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New post 28 Jul 2014, 13:13
2
A has pronoun error.
B is fine.
Use of Present perfect for action finished in the past is not right. Thus C is wrong.
In D and E which is incorrectly used.
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New post 28 Jul 2014, 13:41
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tuliosoria wrote:
PiyushK wrote:
A has pronoun error.
B is fine.
Use of Present perfect for action finished in the past is not right. Thus C is wrong.
In D and E which is incorrectly used.


Could you help me, why which is incorrectly used?



Which is a relative pronoun and it modifies closest noun only. It can not modify noun placed quite far from it.

eg.
I won a cap, which is blue in color. << here which is modifying cap.

a cap I won, which is blue in color. << here cap is placed far from which.

Similarly in this question
Error in D and E.
1. costs (plural) ---SO FAR---..., which is (singular verb not fine)
2. costs are placed far from which

Spending is also an eligible noun and is also singular.
... spending in pres camp..., which is ...
noun is placed very far.. which can not modify it.

so in actual what which is modifying ?
in actual which is modifying the presidential campaign of 1992.
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New post 29 Jul 2014, 06:22
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kassim wrote:
PiyushK wrote:
A has pronoun error.
B is fine.
Use of Present perfect for action finished in the past is not right. Thus C is wrong.
In D and E which is incorrectly used.


Hi,
In "B" aren't we comparing costs to the previous campaign?

Kassim,


Hi Kassim,

Preposition "in" is making comparison fine.

X was higherin the presidential campaign of 1992 || than X (was) in any previous election.
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New post 29 Jul 2014, 06:42
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I believe A has redundancy issue too.B is concise and gives correct comparison."Soaring television costs" is singular,thus C is wrong.In D and E,which incorrectly points to presidential campaigns of 1992 and not to the costs.
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New post 25 Sep 2016, 00:19
(a) a greater proportion than it was --> Intended meaning: The proportion(in the presidential campaign of 1992) was greater than proportion in any previous election. "It" has no referent as per the intended meaning
(b) a greater proportion than --> Correct, conveys intended meaning
(c) a greater proportion than they have been --> "they" can refer to "soaring television costs" ==> Illogical meaning
(d) which is greater than was so --> "which" cannot modify the preceding clause. "which" can modify preceding noun entity
(e) which is greater than it has been --> i)Same Error as in D ii) "It" has no referrent
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New post 08 Jun 2017, 10:15
I have two specific question on this one
1.What is exactly being compared in B?
2.What is wrong with option C?
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New post 09 Jun 2017, 02:31
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techiesam wrote:
I have two specific question on this one
1.What is exactly being compared in B?
2.What is wrong with option C?


1. Objects compared:
A. The proportion of television costs in presidential spending in 1992 (Proportion = more than 1/2)
B. The proportion of television costs in presidential spending in any election before 1992

2. "They" refers to "television costs". Television costs are not compared - the proportion of the television costs is compared. So the pronoun should be "it", not "they".
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New post 09 Jun 2017, 08:36
sayantanc2k wrote:
techiesam wrote:
I have two specific question on this one
1.What is exactly being compared in B?
2.What is wrong with option C?


1. Objects compared:
A. The proportion of television costs in presidential spending in 1992 (Proportion = more than 1/2)
B. The proportion of television costs in presidential spending in any election before 1992

2. "They" refers to "television costs". Television costs are not compared - the proportion of the television costs is compared. So the pronoun should be "it", not "they".


If the pronoun should be it then why A is wrong? Is that because the verb was?
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New post 09 Jun 2017, 08:45
techiesam wrote:
If the pronoun should be it then why A is wrong? Is that because the verb was?


Hi techiesam ,

I think you misunderstood what sayantanc2k tried to convey.

He meant "they" cannot be used to compare the proportion. Proportion can be compared using "it".

But in A, this "it" can refer to two things: proportion or campaign. So, it has pronoun ambiguity error and hence incorrect.

Had the sentence been something like below, it would have been correct.

Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending, a greater proportion than it was in any previous election.

Did you notice "it" here has only one antecedent. Hence, correct.

I hope it makes sense. :)
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New post 09 Jun 2017, 08:53
abhimahna wrote:
techiesam wrote:
If the pronoun should be it then why A is wrong? Is that because the verb was?


Hi techiesam ,

I think you misunderstood what sayantanc2k tried to convey.

He meant "they" cannot be used to compare the proportion. Proportion can be compared using "it".

But in A, this "it" can refer to two things: proportion or campaign. So, it has pronoun ambiguity error and hence incorrect.

Had the sentence been something like below, it would have been correct.

Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending, a greater proportion than it was in any previous election.

Did you notice "it" here has only one antecedent. Hence, correct.

I hope it makes sense. :)


Thank you
My initial thought was that "spending" of different timeline was compared.By the way,in the sentence written by you,doesn't spending also qualify as a contender for it as spending is a noun?
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New post 09 Jun 2017, 09:06
techiesam wrote:
Thank you
My initial thought was that "spending" of different timeline was compared.By the way,in the sentence written by you,doesn't spending also qualify as a contender for it as spending is a noun?


Hi techiesam ,

Yes, it does. But note that the proportion is also referring to the spending only. So, either way we are referring to spending by using "it".

This type of pronoun reference is acceptable on GMAT.

I hope it makes sense. :)
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New post 13 Aug 2017, 06:16
We can eliminate D and E for using the relative pronoun "which" because it's not 1992 that is "greater than..."

C can be eliminated for using the present perfect "have been" to describe past elections.

A uses "it was." What was a greater proportion than in any previous election? Soaring TV costs. Costs are plural and "it was" is singular, so we have an agreement error.

Subject :- soaring television costs(Plural). So, The choices using singular pronoun or verb such as "it" in A, "was so" in D and greater than "it" has in E are out.

A. a greater proportion than it was
This sentence has pronoun reference error. The pronoun "it" can only refer to "spending in the presidential campaign" or to "presidential campaign". Both these references are non-sensical in the context of this sentence.

B. a greater proportion than
This option compares spending over two election periods. Correct.

C. a greater proportion than they have been
The only plural referent for "they' is "soaring television costs". This will result in is an illogical comparison.

D. which is greater than was so
The reference made by "which modifier" is not clear. Is "which" referring to "presidential campaign of 1992" or spending in presidential campaign of 1992" or so on. Thus, use of which modifier is ambiguous.

E. which is greater than it has been
Same as D.
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Re: Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jul 2018, 19:28
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Explanation: “Soaring television costs” is the subject, and it is plural. So, A (it & was), D ( was), and E (has been) are out.
“C” is out as “they have been” seems to suggest that what happened in 1992 is still continuing, which is not right as this phenomenon is ended in 1992, and there is no reason to believe that this is continuing right now.

B is the Answer.

Originally posted by anuj04 on 26 Mar 2018, 22:09.
Last edited by anuj04 on 28 Jul 2018, 19:28, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 25 Jun 2018, 09:22
Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than it was in any previous election.

(A) a greater proportion than it was

(B) a greater proportion than

(C) a greater proportion than they have been

(D) which is greater than was so

(E) which is greater than it has been


Answer B.


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New post 11 Mar 2019, 09:22
nightwing79 wrote:
Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than it was in any previous election.

(A) a greater proportion than it was

(B) a greater proportion than

(C) a greater proportion than they have been

(D) which is greater than was so

(E) which is greater than it has been


how to eliminate choice D. "which" in choice D can modify "more than half spending" and, so, is correct.
"so" in choice D is wrong. "so" refer to preceding verb or adjective. which is greater than that was so? no sense here. "so" can refer to preceding adjective and ,so, is no sense .

look at choice B, official answer
"proportion" must refer to a preceding noun, which is "more than the half spending" . we can understand B as

costs accounted for more than half of the spending in this campain, the proportion is is greater in this campain than in previous year. "proportion" refers to "more than half the spending". this is good. (please , ignore the wordiness of this sentence'.

choice B can be
the proportion is greater in this campain than was in previous year.
this sentence is also good. (PLEASE , CONFIRM OR DISPUTE THIS POINT). we can not insert "so" inhere. that is why choice D is wrong .
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New post 11 Mar 2019, 09:36
Only seven people this century have been killed by the great white shark, the man-eater of the movies—less than those killed by bee stings.


(A) movies—less than those

(B) movies—fewer than have been

(C) movies, which is less than those

(D) movies, a number lower than the people

(E) movies, fewer than the ones

above is from og books.
oa is choice b. I think b can be

fewer than by bee sting.

this is correct and similar to our problem.

PLEASE, CONFIRM OR DISPUTE THIS POINT. THANKS
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New post 11 Mar 2019, 10:01
WE need to be farmiliar with the comparison in which the second latter clause contain no subject but only second element of comparison , which must be adverbial. yes, the second element of comparison must be adverb. if the second element of comparison is in adjectival position, subject of the second clause must be present or "that/those" must be present. consider

students of Havard business school are more successul that THOSE of Hanoi business school are.
students of Havard business school are more successul than businessman of small business

the problem here is that when adjectivals are compared, the subject of second clause is present and if the subject of the second clause is similar to that of the first clause, "that/those" is inserted.

if adverbials are compared, Zero subject in second clause is inserted . in this case second clause may or may not contain a verb. of course, the second adverbial must be present

if we want insert the subject into second clause, the subject must be "it/they", which refer to the same things in preceding clause. but we can not alway insert "it/they" because this inserting can make you compare apple and orange, (compare two things which can not be compared) or because, this insertion require verb and, so, make comparion unparallel. the insertion of "it/they" normally can be wordy. consider

the proportion is greater this year than it was last year. this is wordy.

the proportion is greater this year than last year.

a proportion greater this year than it was last year. comparison is not parallel (the preceding clause contain no verb to be, the second clause can not contain to be). sentence is wrong.

that is all about when we use "that/those, when we use "it/they" and when we use ZEro subject

pls, confirm or dispute.
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