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# Social scientists have traditionally defined multipolar international

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Explanation

3. The author’s reference to the possibility that confrontations may lead to capitulation (lines 27–30) serves primarily to

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

The question stem asks us about lines 27-30. The second paragraph serves to discuss the traditional view of bipolar systems. Thus, the author’s reference must be a way for him to describe some salient feature of bipolar systems.

We can begin by eliminating (B), (C), and (E) as they bring in multipolar systems. The author isn’t concerned with a line-by-line comparison between multipolar and bipolar systems in this paragraph. He simply lays out the traditional view of bipolar systems.

We can then eliminate (D) because the “nature of international relations” is too broad to be within the scope of this passage. The author doesn’t discuss the entire nature of all international relations, just two types of systems for those relations.

The remaining choice, (A), is correct. The line reference in the question stem includes “salient feature of bipolar systems” which corresponds to “characteristics” in the question stem. The reference also includes “frequent confrontations, debilitating armed conflict, and, eventually, the capitulation of one or the other side” which corresponds to “unstable” in the question stem.

Makhabbat wrote:
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AkankshaUniyal wrote:

Explanation

4. With respect to the Cold War, the author’s attitude can most accurately be described as

Difficulty Level: Medium

Explanation

You should begin Author’s Attitude questions by identifying where in the text the author clearly states his or her opinion. Then determine whether the author is generally positive or negative as a way to eliminate several wrong answer choices quickly.

The question stem asks us to consider the author’s attitude towards the Cold War. His opinions are stated in the final paragraph, in which he extends his reassessment of bipolar and multipolar systems to the Cold War. We see there that he thinks it “created the necessary parameters for general peace”. That phrase matches well with choice (C).

(A)—the author is somewhat positive about the bipolar system of the Cold War, insofar as he says that it contributed to stability. “Fearful” is thus out.

(B)“created the parameters for general peace” hardly sounds like “surprised that it did not end with a major war”.

(D) uses the term “regretful,” which injects far more emotion into the passage than is there. The author writes in a dry, scholarly tone the entire time.

(E) talks about what “will” happen, and is inappropriate because the author’s consideration of the Cold War in the final paragraph doesn’t concern itself with the future.