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Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l

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Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Aug 2019, 04:41
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Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them, whereas they are not only entirely different, but have different origins. Society is a blessing brought forth naturally by our wants, uniting our affections and promoting our happiness. Government is a necessary evil originating from the need to restrain our vices.

Suppose a small number of persons represent the first peopling of any country, or of the world. In this state of natural liberty, a thousand motives will excite them to society: the strength of one is so unequal to his wants, and his mind so unfitted for perpetual solitude, that he is soon obliged to seek assistance and relief from another, who in turn requires the same. Considering the slavish times in which it developed, the form of government known as ―constitutional monarchy‖ is granted to have been a noble creation. When the world was overrun with tyranny, the least remove therefrom was a glorious rescue. However, government, if unchecked, evolves over time to a form so complex that a nation may suffer for years without being able to discover in which part the fault lies; and every political physician will advise a different medicine.

Four or five united in a society would be able to raise a dwelling, but one might labour out the period of life without accomplishing anything. Disease or misfortune could soon reduce an individual to a state in which he could easily perish. As time passes, however, in proportion as they surmount their early difficulties, the people will inevitably relax in their duty and attachment to each other; and this laxity will point out the necessity for each to surrender a part of his property in order to establish some form of government to protect the rest. Here then is the origin of government: the inability of moral virtue to govern the world; here, too, is the design and end of government: freedom and security.

And it unanswerably follows that whatever form of government which appears most likely to ensure the protection which constitutes government‘s essential purpose, with the least expense, is preferable to all others. As the community expands, public concerns will increase and the distance at which the members are separated may render it inconvenient for all to meet on every occasion. Thus the members may consent to leave the legislative part to be managed by a number of chosen representatives, who are supposed to have the same concerns as those who appointed them, and who will act in the same manner as the whole would, if present.

That the interest of every part of the colony may be attended to, the whole may be divided into convenient parts, each part sending its proper number. And so that there be assured a common interest with every part of the community, on which the strength of government depends, prudence will point to the need for frequent elections, thereby assuring that the elected return and mix often with the community.

1. As evidenced by the arguments posed by the author in each paragraph, the primary purpose of the passage is to:

A. chronicle the development of a particular form of government.
B. advocate a simple form of representative government.
C. contrast society and government.
D. distinguish representative government from constitutional monarchy.
E. criticise all forms of government as an unnecessary burden on people



2. The author concluded in the passage that the essential purpose of government is protection of property. In doing so the author assumes that:
I. there actually existed a time in which the disparity between an individual‘s needs and wants motivated cooperation, and not transgressions against property.
II. the part of property surrendered to establish some form of government is less than that which would be lost if it were left unprotected.
III. the moral laxity resulting from reduction in hardship results in acts against property, rather than failure to assist those experiencing disease or misfortune.

A. I, II, and III
B. II and III only
C. I and II only
D. I and III only
E. II only



3. It can be inferred from the passage that its author would most probably respond to the view that the resources of government should be employed to relieve the effects of poverty by stating that:

A. since the strength of an individual must be recognized to, at times, be unequal to his needs, it is natural for government, once it has evolved, to perform such functions.
B. these activities should be performed by individuals or associations outside of government.
C. since poverty is correlated with crime against property, government must perform these functions if non-governmental efforts are not fully effective.
D. this should be decided by the representatives elected by the people as a whole.
E. relieving poverty would be impossible unless efforts were taken to reduce illiteracy



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Originally posted by sahilchaudhary on 10 Jan 2014, 07:35.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 Aug 2019, 04:41, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Nov 2018, 19:18
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asadsurmawala wrote:
PLEASE EXPLAIN QUESTION 1 AND 2


Hi asadsurmawala, rahulkashyap
here is the answer for Q2. sahilchaudhary, workout, please correct if i have misinterpreted the meaning.

2. The author concluded in the passage that the essential purpose of government is protection of property. In doing so the author assumes that:
I. there actually existed a time in which the disparity between an individual‘s needs and wants motivated cooperation, and not transgressions against property.
II. the part of property surrendered to establish some form of government is less than that which would be lost if it were left unprotected.
III. the moral laxity resulting from reduction in hardship results in acts against property, rather than failure to assist those experiencing disease or misfortune.

A. I, II, and III
B. II and III only
C. I and II only
D. I and III only
E. II only

THE QUESTION TALKS ABOUT AN OUTCOME: the essential purpose of government is protection of property. AND WE NEED TO FIND ASSUMPTIONS THAT SUPPORT THIS OUTCOME. Let's look at each option.
The option I points to para 2 :
In this state of natural liberty, a thousand motives will excite them to society: the strength of one is so unequal to his wants, and his mind so unfitted for perpetual solitude, that he is soon obliged [u]to seek assistance and relief from another, who in turn requires the same.[/u]

rather than understanding entire para, let's look at answer choices and map those with above para.
Opion I. there actually existed a time in which the disparity between an individual‘s needs and wants motivated cooperation, and not transgressions against property.
How to interpret:
In simple terms, when we get complete freedom, we want to perform many (good) things for our society. when we have freedom, our mind doesn't seek solitude/loneliness, rather, we want to meet with few other members and seek assistance/ help each other.
a more practical example -- when you join university for post graduation, you have full freedom to choose your subjects, you have full freedom to innovate and make things better. In such cases, do we opt to just sit alone in library OR in our dorm room? No, right? we make friends, we meet more ppl/faculty members and we try to help each other, we learn from each other, right? that's the same concept explained here.
Option further says -->not transgressions against property --> this means: we don't commit any crime or offence. The para doesn't say anything like this. the para/author says, we seek assistance / help.
SO OPTION I ACTS AS AN ASSUMPTION that supports the conclusion.

Option II. the part of property surrendered to establish some form of government is less than that which would be lost if it were left unprotected.
How to interpret:
Let's look at para 3 -->
As time passes, however, in proportion as they surmount their early difficulties, the people will inevitably relax in their duty and attachment to each other; and this laxity will point out the necessity for each to surrender a part of his property in order to establish some form of government to protect the rest. Here then is the origin of government: the inability of moral virtue to govern the world; here, too, is the design and end of government: freedom and security.

as highlighted above: the thrid para doesn't compare the two option. The para only says that once a person is tired --> he / she prefers giving a part of property so that rest can be protected. The para doesn't compare the action of "giving part of property so that you still own something " VS "not surrendering and leaving the property unprotected".
HENCE OPTION II is NOT THE ASSUMPTION.


Option III. the moral laxity resulting from reduction in hardship results in acts against property, rather than failure to assist those experiencing disease or misfortune.

Let's look at para 3 -->
1) Four or five united in a society would be able to raise a dwelling, but one might labour out the period of life without accomplishing anything. 2) Disease or misfortune could soon reduce an individual to a state in which he could easily perish. 3) As time passes, however, in proportion as they surmount their early difficulties, the people will inevitably relax in their duty and attachment to each other; and this laxity will point out the necessity for each to surrender a part of his property in order to establish some form of government to protect the rest.

How to interpret:
1) Author says that 4 to 5 members in a society perform a great hardwork (labour) through out entire life but they don't succeed. They don't achieve anything.
2) Sometimes, Due to illness (disease) or due to misfortune, they tend to feel perished (sudden dealth/pain/fall/expire).
3) Over a period of time, some people surpass these difficulties. but as they grow older, they can't keep up with constant struggle/hardship. So they give up on their duties (relax) and also relations. for more clarity --> imagine our grandparents or great grand parents. During their young age, they worked really hard, but as they grew older, they naturally couldn't continue working. They retired. It's natural that they let their children take care of themselves. In doing so, sometimes, our great grand parents gave away some part of land or any other valueable items/assets to their generation (children etc).

This is exactly given in the Option 3. As ppl grew older, due to moral obligations they preferred giving part of property/assets to others. These members didn't fight to hold on to the property. They shared it with rest so that everyone is protected/benefited. As essentially, this forms the basis for forming a government.
Again, the second part of the option III --> "rather than failure to assist those experiencing disease or misfortune" --> aligns with above point. Notice that how, author uses point 2) given above.

Author says that giving part of land is a moral duty and should not be interpreted as a failure to assist less fortunate.

SO OPTION III ACTS AS AN ASSUMPTION that supports the conclusion.

If we combine all these, answer is D. I and III only

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Originally posted by Cinematiccuisine on 03 Nov 2018, 18:47.
Last edited by Cinematiccuisine on 03 Nov 2018, 19:18, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2014, 04:24
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Paris75 wrote:
If somone could explain question three it will be nice!

thanks!


Please find the OE below:

3) Predict what the author would think about this argument: Since the author believes that government should be kept as simple as possible, and that its only legitimate function is to protect property, he or she wouldn‘t take kindly to adding another function to government. Looking for an answer choice that reflects this turns up (B), which restates the point: government should stick only to protecting property.

(A): Opposite. Though the idea is dressed up in complicated wording lifted from the passage, it‘s misapplied here: the author would think that it‘s not natural for government to take on this duty.
(B): The correct answer
(C): Out of Scope. There‘s nothing in the passage to suggest that the author believes this correlation exists, and so it can‘t be inferred that the author would believe that this is a valid principle.
(D): Opposite. The author does argue that representatives should decide issues, but also believes that this should happen within a limited government that serves only to protect property.
(E): 'Illiteracy‘ is out of scope.

Hope that helps :)
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Re: Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2018, 19:17
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rahulkashyap wrote:
Can someone give the explanation for q1

Posted from my mobile device


Hi rahulkashyap, asadsurmawala: let's look at question 1. @worjout, sahilchaudhary -- pls correct if i have misunderstood any section. thank you.

1. As evidenced by the arguments posed by the author in each paragraph, the primary purpose of the passage is to:

A. chronicle the development of a particular form of government.
B. advocate a simple form of representative government.
C. contrast society and government.
D. distinguish representative government from constitutional monarchy.
E. criticise all forms of government as an unnecessary burden on people


Summary of the passage as i read through:

Para 1: Society (S) VS Government (G) <-- how they are formed.
Para 2: How society is formed and then "a need" to form a government are explained.
Para 3: How action of members in a society dictate the roles and responsibilities of "Government".
Para 4: Limitations of Government and formation of small grps
Para 5: Diffrent parties -> send members-> Election -> Government

Overall summary: The author starts with S VS G but explains how S helps in forming a government. More concentration is given on R&R of G. And how representation/election is part of forming G.

Now let's look at each option:
A. chronicle the development of a particular form of government.
My Interpretation: Yes, Chronicle @ formation of G is given but functions/responsibilities are also given. So this option is partially correct. Hence INCORRECT OPTION

B. advocate a simple form of representative government.
My Interpretation: Yes, This aligns with my summary. Hence LET"S HOLD ON and look at other options

C. contrast society and government.
My Interpretation: The para doesn't contract between S & G. Yes, author starts with a difference between S & G, but then explains how S helps in forming G --> goes beyond and explains key aspects of G. Hence INCORRECT OPTION

D. distinguish representative government from constitutional monarchy.
My Interpretation: constitutional monarchy (CM) is given only in para 2. All the distinguishing features of CM are not explained. There is no broader comparison throughout the para. Hence INCORRECT OPTION

E. criticise all forms of government as an unnecessary burden on people
My Interpretation: This doesn't align with our summary. Author is not ciritsizing G in each of the paras. Hence INCORRECT OPTION

Well, After going through rest of the choices, B seems to be a clear winner. i hope this helps.

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Re: Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2018, 03:26
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Wow. 4 mins 56 secs later: All wrong! Aristotle comes up with the most esoteric passages.

The main point here was : The simpler the govt the better and the primary objective is "protect property"
This is hidden so well in one of the passages, almost feels like one is reading old English. :-\

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Re: Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave l   [#permalink] 20 Dec 2018, 03:26
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