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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 21:39
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A
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Question Stats:

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Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as

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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 21:40
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)



The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as[/quote]

HIGHLIGHTS

• MODIFIER WHICH
We have a "dangling modifier" -- a modifier that has no clear referent or that has the wrong referent
In the construction comma + which, which modifies the immediately preceding noun (and occasionally a noun farther away IF that noun is followed by modifiers that "which" can "reach back over" such as a prepositional phrase)

What was home to such "Fire Eaters" as Brett and McQueen? NOT secession. Secession is not a place.
South Carolina was home to the "Fire Eaters" (men who were eager for war)
-- even if you don't know what secession means, the other options contain a state, a place.
GMAT is strict about places. "Home" means "place of residence of origin." South Carolina is a place.

• SUCH . . . AS to present examples
How to present examples using SUCH separated from AS? (GMAC tested this issue a few times in OGs 2019 and 2020, and OG VR 2019 and 2020)
-- "Such as" will always be correct to present examples
-- "Such as" can be split up when it introduces examples. SUCH + nouns + AS + examples
Correct: I read a lot of prose, such as novels, essay collections, and scholarly journals.
Correct: I often read such prose as novels, essay collections, and scholarly journals.

Take a look at this official question, HERE, SPOILER ALERT: the answer to an official question is revealed if you look under the spoiler
to see "such as" correctly split up and introducing examples.


• VERBS
When (1) no clear reason exists to use past perfect (had been); and (2) a sentence makes perfect sense using only simple past tense, either find a different error or stick with simple past tense.
-- speakers of British English, be a little careful. Past perfect is used more often in B.E. than in U.S. English.
-- had been is not correct in context. Why are these men mentioned? South Carolina did something dramatic. These men (the fire eaters) were connected to that event.
-- groundwork WAS laid . . . slavery BECAME: we have two simple past tense verbs. No reason exists to change the tense of WAS home to HAD BEEN.
-- did the fire eaters leave? Does anything in the sentence suggest as much? No. WAS is correct.

SPLITS

• Split #1 - WHICH has nothing to modify

Neither secession nor groundwork was home to the Fire Eaters. South Carolina, a place, was their home
Options A and C incorrectly use secession and groundwork as antecedents of which.
Eliminate A and C

• Split #2 - SUCH people AS Fire Eaters AS Brett and McQueen is nonsensical

Option E incorrectly uses AS twice. To introduce examples with such as (whether separated or not), use only one AS
This construction is okay: . . . South Carolina, which was home to such people as "Fire Eaters" R. B. Brett and John McQueen.
(If that construction makes no sense, ignore it. Just remember that such gets only one AS.)
Eliminate E.

• Split #3 - VERBS
As explained above, WAS is preferred in this context and HAD BEEN suggests that the warmongers left.
Option D is not as good as option B.

The correct answer is B.

COMMENTS

This question is subtle.
These answers range from very good to excellent.
I like how the excellent answers explain the ways in which words are used and what structures are preferred, etc.
Forum members who read this thread will have access to a few ways to understand the sentence and the errors.
Nice work.

Kudos to all.
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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 22:08
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as


A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such - an event was home - incorrect (Googled secession - withdrawal of 11 US states (an event)

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such Past perfect is required

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such Groundwork was home - incorrect

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to suchPast perfect in combination with past provides the correct timeline

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as such people As...as - incorrect
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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 22:39
1
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

Sentence Structure
Subject - Verb:
    The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina
        , which( South Carolina) was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen,
      was laid throughout the 1850s,
        when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.
Issues:
    The sentence intends to say:
      1) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina was laid throughout the 1850s
        1A) when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union
        2A) South Carolina was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen

    What was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen?
      secession OR South Carolina
      Definitely, it CANNOT be secession ----we need a place---> South Carolina
      A and C Which, a relative noun modifier, CANNOT modify the adjective/prepositional phrase( South Carolina's)

Answer choice analysis:
    A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such
      Which, a relative noun modifier, CANNOT modify the adjective/prepositional phrase( South Carolina's)

    B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such
      Corrects all the errors. B is the champ!

    C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such
      Which, a relative noun modifier, CANNOT modify the adjective/prepositional phrase( South Carolina's)

    D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such
      Meaning issue: Unsolicited time-shift. The general facts should be ideally stated in present/past tense, unless a timeshift is required.

    E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as
      Incorrect structure: such X as Y as

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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 22:58
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Decision points:

We have the "which" relative modifier in all options. Note that "which" modifies the noun that immediately precedes the "which". Therefore the groundwork or the secession cannot be home to anything. So "which" must be preceded by South Carolina. This is followed in (B), (D) and (E)

The second decision point IMO, is the trouble maker here. Is the use of past perfect tense necessary? The past perfect tense is used to describe a past action which preceded another past action provided that both actions are related. I've taken the following example from another discussion

Wrong : Joe learned about an Epoch in which dinosaurs had walked the earth.

Joe learned something.....What? He learned that dinosaurs walked the earth. Is the action of Joe's learning in anyway related to the second action ?

No. The first event here in no way affects the second event of joe's learning about dinosaurs.
If we use simple past for both the events here:

Joe learned about an Epoch in which dinosaurs walked the earth.

Its pretty clear that dinosaurs walked a long time back (its a fact. Right?) and there is no way in which these two events could happen together.

Right: Joe was very disappointed when he saw his scores in the GMAT because he had hoped for a 770.

Now see.....Joe hoped for 770 before he saw his score in the test. Therefore we use past perfect for the first event and simple past for the second one.


So here the question is,

Is the laying of the groundwork for the secession related to South Carolina being home to R. B. Brett and John McQueen? - South Carolina was home to the men regardless of a secession.

So this invalidates the requirement for past perfect

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such
"Which" modifies the secession - Eliminate

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such
"Which" modifies South Carolina and simple past tense is used - Keep

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such
"Which" modifies groundwork - Eliminate

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such
"Which" modifies South Carolina but the past perfect tense has been used unnecessarily - Eliminate

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as
"Such people as "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen" ? - That's just awkward - Eliminate

Answer is (B)
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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 23:19
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)


For SC butler Questions Click Here


The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as

The only issue with the original sentence is that which is incorrectly modifying secession, whereas it should modify South Carolina as the meaning of the sentence. "which was home to such..." describes the place South Carolina.
So option A and C are out.
The subject of the sentence should be singular as the verb "was laid" is singular. Hence "the groundwork was laid" is the right construction.
In option D, "had been" has been incorrectly used as there is no need of a past perfect tense here as there is no such sequencing of events in the sentence.
In option E, "was home to such people as" makes the sentence wordy.
Option B is the answer

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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 00:29
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IMO correct answer is B

The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such - after comma which is incorrectly modifying South Carolina's secession, this should not be the case, it should modify South Carolina, home to such......

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such - Seems OK; corrects all errors.

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such - again same issue with modification by which

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such - past perfect tense is unnecessarily used here, no need as no two past events are marked to be time shifted.

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as - Awkward usage, ignore
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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such - wrong modification of secession

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such - correct South Carolina was home

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such - wrong modification which - should not modify the word groundwork

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such - I don't see consiquentse of actions, so no needs for perfect

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as- to such people as Fire Eaters as ... wrong structure such as
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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 08:58
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 10:16
1
Quote:
generis wrote:
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)



The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as


HIGHLIGHTS

• MODIFIER WHICH
We have a "dangling modifier" -- a modifier that has no clear referent or that has the wrong referent
In the construction comma + which, which modifies the immediately preceding noun (and occasionally a noun farther away IF that noun is followed by modifiers that "which" can "reach back over" such as a prepositional phrase)

What was home to such "Fire Eaters" as Brett and McQueen? NOT secession. South Carolina was home to the "Fire Eaters" (men who were eager for war)
-- even if you don't know what secession means, the other options contain a state, a place.
GMAT is strict about places. "Home" means "place of residence." South Carolina is a place.

• SUCH . . . AS to present examples
How to present examples using SUCH separated from AS (GMAC tested this issue a few times in OGs 2019 and 2020, and OG VR 2019 and 2020)?
-- "Such as" will always be correct to present examples
-- "Such as" can be split up when it introduces examples. SUCH + nouns + AS + examples
Correct: I read a lot of prose, such as novels, essay collections, and scholarly journals.
Correct: I often read such prose as novels, essay collections, and scholarly journals.

Take a look at this official question, HERE, SPOILER ALERT: the answer to an official question is revealed if you look under the spoiler
to see "such as" correctly split up and introducing examples.


• VERBS
When (1) no clear reason exists to use past perfect (had been); and (2) a sentence makes perfect sense using only simple past tense, either find a different error or stick with simple past tense.
-- speakers of British English, be a little careful. Past perfect is used more often in B.E. than in U.S. English.
-- had been is not correct in context. Why are these men mentioned? South Carolina did something dramatic. These men (the fire eaters) were connected to that event.
-- groundwork WAS laid . . . slavery BECAME: we have two simple past tense verbs. No reason exists to change the tense of WAS home to HAD BEEN.
-- did the fire eaters leave? Does anything in the sentence suggest as much? No. WAS is correct.

SPLITS

• Split #1 - WHICH has nothing to modify

Neither secession nor groundwork was home to the Fire Eaters. South Carolina, a place, was their home
Options A and C incorrectly use secession and groundwork as antecedents of which.
Eliminate A and C

• Split #2 - SUCH people AS Fire Eaters AS Brett and McQueen is nonsensical

Option E incorrectly uses AS twice. To introduce examples with such as (whether separated or not), use only one AS
This construction is okay: . . . South Carolina, which was home to such people as "Fire Eaters" R. B. Brett and John McQueen.
(If that construction makes no sense, ignore it. Just remember that such gets only one AS.)
Eliminate E.

• Split #3 - VERBS
As explained above, WAS is preferred in this context and HAD BEEN suggests that the warmongers left.
Option D is not as good as option E.

The correct answer is E.

COMMENTS

This question is subtle and maybe a bit complicated. (Can't tell - history is one of my wheelhouses.)
These answers range from very good to excellent.
I like how the excellent answers explain how words are used and what structures are preferred, etc.
Forum members who read this thread will have access to a few ways to understand the sentence and the errors.
Nice work.

Kudos to all.



You mentioned at the last of your post that the correct answer is E.

I think it should be B as per the OA in the timer.
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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 10:25
warrior1991 wrote:
Quote:
generis wrote:
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 138: Sentence Correction (SC2)



The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such "Fire Eaters" as R. B. Brett and John McQueen, was laid throughout the 1850s, when slavery became a divisive issue amongst members of the union.

A) The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such

B) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such

C) South Carolina's secession groundwork, which was home to such

D) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which had been home to such

E) The groundwork for the secession of South Carolina, which was home to such people as


You mentioned at the last of your post that the correct answer is E.

I think it should be B as per the OA in the timer.

warrior1991 , nice catch. +1 Thank you!
For those of you who might have been confused, see the error analysis of options that I left in this post.
The answer is B.
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Re: The groundwork for South Carolina's secession, which was home to such   [#permalink] 17 Jul 2019, 10:25
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