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# The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not rece

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The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not rece  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 01 Aug 2018, 22:46
1
00:00

Difficulty:

35% (medium)

Question Stats:

71% (01:37) correct 29% (01:37) wrong based on 119 sessions

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The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not receive much sunlight most of the year prompted researchers at the University of Frankphyl to study the link between a lack of vitamin D, which is found naturally in sunlight, and the incidence of depression. The study found that in patients with a relatively severe degree of depression, the level of vitamin D was lower than in patients with a milder degree of depression. The researchers hence concluded that people in such countries can avert depression by including vitamin D supplements in their diet.

Which of the following is required for the conclusion drawn by the researchers to hold true?

A. There is a significant difference in the effect that vitamin D obtained directly from sunlight and that obtained from dietary supplements has on the health of a patient suffering from depression.

B. Patients with the most severe degree of depression belonged to countries that do not receive sunlight up to extended periods of six months.

C. Both people with a severe degree of depression and those with a mild degree of depression belonged to the same economic strata.

D. The lack of vitamin D is not triggered by depression in patients.

E. The required dose for vitamin D supplements is significantly higher for patients with severe depression than for patients with mild depression.

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Originally posted by Cbirole on 01 Aug 2018, 22:43.
Last edited by workout on 01 Aug 2018, 22:46, edited 1 time in total.
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The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not rece  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2018, 23:05
1
Prethinking : When the passage concludes that X causes Y like in this case, the lack of Vitamin D causes depression, the usual unspecified assumption is that Y didn't cause X i.e depression didn't cause low levels of Vitamin D

A. There is a significant difference in the effect that vitamin D obtained directly from sunlight and that obtained from dietary supplements has on the health of a patient suffering from depression.

The conclusion didn't depend on the effect of Vitamin D, it is dependent on levels of Vitamin D INCORRECT

B. Patients with the most severe degree of depression belonged to countries that do not receive sunlight up to extended periods of six months.

This statement is not needed for the conclusion to be true. There can be people with sever depression from countries do not receive sunlight for a period less than 6 months. INCORRECT

C. Both people with a severe degree of depression and those with a mild degree of depression belonged to the same economic strata.

This is unrelated information to passage and to the conclusion made. INCORRECT

D. The lack of vitamin D is not triggered by depression in patients.

This exactly resembles the prethinking(Y didn't cause X) and hence is required for the conclusion

E. The required dose for vitamin D supplements is significantly higher for patients with severe depression than for patients with mild depression.

The conclusion is whether to use vitamin or not. The conclusion didn't specify the amount of vitamin D and hence this option is not necessary for the conclusion. INCORRECT

Hence option D
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Re: The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not rece  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2018, 13:20
2
Cbirole wrote:
The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not receive much sunlight most of the year prompted researchers at the University of Frankphyl to study the link between a lack of vitamin D, which is found naturally in sunlight, and the incidence of depression. The study found that in patients with a relatively severe degree of depression, the level of vitamin D was lower than in patients with a milder degree of depression. The researchers hence concluded that people in such countries can avert depression by including vitamin D supplements in their diet.

Which of the following is required for the conclusion drawn by the researchers to hold true?

A. There is a significant difference in the effect that vitamin D obtained directly from sunlight and that obtained from dietary supplements has on the health of a patient suffering from depression.

B. Patients with the most severe degree of depression belonged to countries that do not receive sunlight up to extended periods of six months.

C. Both people with a severe degree of depression and those with a mild degree of depression belonged to the same economic strata.

D. The lack of vitamin D is not triggered by depression in patients.

E. The required dose for vitamin D supplements is significantly higher for patients with severe depression than for patients with mild depression.

This is a typical Cause and Effect reasoning question in which the the argument assumes that the cause mentioned in the argument is the sole cause for the mentioned effect and there can be no other cause.

The argument assumes that the
Cause(Deficiency of Vitamin D) leads to the Effect(Depression)

and the argument concludes that including Vitamin D source in diet can avert depression
which basically means that No Cause will lead to No Effect.

Hence Answer Choice D, is our basic Assumption that the Cause Effect Relationship is not actually reverse.
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Re: The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not rece  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2018, 02:12
Hope your preparation is going well.
If you work the argument, you will identify it to be a causal pattern. In this pattern, the assumption is that there is no other cause responsible for the effect. Also, the effect is not responsible for the cause.
Now let us do POE
A-Out of scope, a difference in the effect is not in the context of the discussion.
B-Again the argument does not discuss about the degree of depression.
C-Out of scope. Economic strata is not a part of the argument.
D-Correct.
E -out of scope
Hope it helps.All the best!!
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Re: The high rate of depression among people in countries that do not rece &nbs [#permalink] 03 Aug 2018, 02:12
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