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# A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day

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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of fi ve dollars per day [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 11:48
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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of fi ve dollars per
day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming
that the fee will alleviate the city’s traffi c congestion.
The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the
cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points,
many people will switch from using their cars to using
the bus.
Which of the following statements, if true, provides the
best evidence that the mayor’s reasoning is fl awed?
(A) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will
increase the cost of taking a private vehicle into
the city.
(B) The cost of parking fees already makes it
considerably more expensive for most people
to take a private vehicle into the city than to take
a bus.
(C) Most of the people currently riding the bus do
not own private vehicles.
(D) Many commuters opposing the mayor’s plan have
indicated that they would rather endure traffi c
congestion than pay a fi ve-dollar-per-day fee.
(E) During the average workday, private vehicles
owned and operated by people living within the
city account for 20 percent of the city’s traffi c
congestion.
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S

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Last edited by pqhai on 09 Sep 2013, 15:55, edited 2 times in total.
Rename the topic.

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09 Sep 2013, 11:50
Parking fees are execessively high but still ppl use their cars to commute shows that they don't want to save money that much, so \$5 might not affect that group of people.
option B correctly states that
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S

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09 Sep 2013, 13:21
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WaterFlowsUp wrote:
A certain mayor has proposed a fee of fi ve dollars per
day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming
that the fee will alleviate the city’s traffi c congestion.
The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the
cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points,
many people will switch from using their cars to using
the bus.
Which of the following statements, if true, provides the
best evidence that the mayor’s reasoning is fl awed?
(A) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will
increase the cost of taking a private vehicle into
the city.
(B) The cost of parking fees already makes it
considerably more expensive for most people
to take a private vehicle into the city than to take
a bus.
(C) Most of the people currently riding the bus do
not own private vehicles.
(D) Many commuters opposing the mayor’s plan have
indicated that they would rather endure traffi c
congestion than pay a fi ve-dollar-per-day fee.
(E) During the average workday, private vehicles
owned and operated by people living within the
city account for 20 percent of the city’s traffi c
congestion.

I will try to explain my stream of thoughts, should you find something wrong, please correct me!!!
Conclusion: the fee will alleviate the city’s traffic congestion
Premises: the fee will exceed the
cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points,
many people will switch from using their cars to using
the bus.
Assumption: people will switch from car to bus for economical reason, i.e. people select their means of transport on the basis of the cost they face in each choice

A) This actually strengthen the conclusion . Therefore S
B) This undermines the faulty assumption for the conclusion: . Since a private vehicle is
already more expensive than a bus in the city and nonetheless people continue to use private cars and increase traffic, cost is not the main driver in people's choice about mobility in the city, therefore W
C) The conclusion is not about people already using buses, but about people using private vehicle. So Irrelevant on the conclusion I
D) The answer is about people opposing to the major, but it is not related and has no effect on the conclusion which is about the effectiveness of the fee in reducing traffic congestion into the city. Therefore Irrelevant I
E) This answer is very tempting since it brings along piece of evidence about private vehicles and it mimics the language in the conclusion, but ultimately it is about private vehicles operated by people living in the city, therefore it doesn't tell us something about the effect of the fee, which will be for people entering the city.

.

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09 Sep 2013, 13:38
Your correct train of thought has led you to the correct answer option, i.e B for Bravo
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S

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of fi ve dollars per day [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2014, 05:25
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2014, 20:46
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of fi ve dollars per day [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2015, 15:14
Although I got my answer correct, but I pre-assumed something different than given in the answer choice. Please check whether my pre-assumptions are also correct:

1. The city has narrow streets which does not allow buses to commute easily. So switching from cars to buses won't be of any use.
2. This city is used as an intermediate city to commute to another place. So, at any cost cars will enter and they can't be replaced with round-trip bus.

Thanks and Regards
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2015, 15:14
Although I got my answer correct, but I pre-assumed something different than given in the answer choice. Please check whether my pre-assumptions are also correct:

1. The city has narrow streets which does not allow buses to commute easily. So switching from cars to buses won't be of any use.
2. This city is used as an intermediate city to commute to another place. So, at any cost cars will enter and they can't be replaced with round-trip bus.

Thanks and Regards
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2015, 15:33
Quote:
A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

There is an easy way to reveal incorrect answer choices. Mayor assumption "Most commuters are price-sensitive".

a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city. Strengthen the assumption
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus. Weaken the assumption
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles. Out of scope. We are focused on commuters
d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee. Strengthen the assumption
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion. Out of scope. We are focused on commuters

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2016, 06:21
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2016, 00:00
Conclusion: \$5 will alleviate traffic congestion
Premise: \$5 fee exceeds the round trip bus fare.

Assumption: cost is a very important factor for commuters

Something which undermines this assumption i.e. cost is the not a crucial factor will point out the flaw.

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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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12 May 2016, 05:07
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 39
Page: 131
Difficulty:

A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.

Data:
- plan, 5\$/day
5\$/day > bus ticket (for close by places)
Conclusion:
- people will prefer bus ->traffic congestion would decrease
Assumption:
- Money is the most important parameter for people when choosing how to commute OR

[X] - A - This got nothing to do with the plan the mayor suggested. the OG try to strengthen the likelihood of the wanted result by the mayor.
[V] - B - If people are already paying more than a bus rise, hence, money is not the most important factor for people who commute by a car. hence a 5\$ feee might not do the trick.
[X] - C - This is group "people who are currently riding the bus" is not relevant -> Out of Scope
[X] - D - the use of many is ambiguous, it can be 100 of 120, or 100 of 100000. This statement does not indicates a general trend in the population. Moreover, the people preference does not relate to the assumption, and hence this option is not relevant.
[X] - E - Irrelevant fact.

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of fi ve dollars per day [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2016, 03:32
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2017, 11:40
egmat wrote:
abhijeetjha wrote:

Chiranjeev I am little confused post your explanation...

Actually, it is good to be confused. Confusion is the first step to learning

abhijeetjha wrote:
Though i know that the answer is very much B , the only reason i discarded D is because of the quantifying word "MANY"...Dont we need to consider the feasibility of the application of a reasoning to point whether its flawed or not ... Even in option B we are very much considering the success of the plan to determine whether the mayor's reasoning will result in a successful application or not...to find a flaw in this reasoning the only way it can be done is by evaluating its practical application..

abhijeetjha wrote:
In option D as it says "Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee"...So even if those opposing actually dont take bus and endure traffic congestion , still we will be left with MANY or SOME commuters who can fall prey to Mayor's reasoning ..So obviously it is not pointing out the flaw in Mayor's reasoning .....

Option D says many people opposing the plan prefer traffic congestion over five dollar fee. Right?

Now, suppose if five dollar fee is initiated, would these people drive cars or use buses?

The answer is: We don't know.

We only know that these people prefer current situation of high traffic than a five dollar fee proposed by the Mayor. But what would happen if they are asked to pay five dollar fee? Do we know? No.

abhijeetjha wrote:
So even if those opposing actually dont take bus and endure traffic congestion , still we will be left with MANY or SOME commuters who can fall prey to Mayor's reasoning

How can we say that these people will not take the bus? Remember option D is talking about (Traffic congestion vs five dollar fee) and NOT (comfort of car vs five dollar fee).

On the contrary, since these people are so much unwilling to pay five dollar fee, then in case Mayor's plan is instituted, they will probably be the first one to drop their cars and switch to buses. In this case, option D rather seems to support the Mayor's plan since it talks about a category of people who'll likely behave per Mayor's plan.

However, I would not go this far to suggest that option D supports Mayor's plan.

The best way to look at option D is in relation to the argument given.

What is the mayor's plan?
Five dollar fee for pvt vehicles (X) ---> fee will exceed the cost of round trip bus fare ----> most people will switch to bus ---> Traffic congestion will ease (Y)

What is option D?
Many people prefer (Not of Y) over X i.e. traffic congestion over five dollar fee. In other words, these people prefer current situation over Mayor's plan. Right? In the current situation, we have traffic congestion and no fee.

Now, my point was that if many or all people don't want your plan, it does not indicate a flaw in your reasoning. Here, it is important to understand what we mean by reasoning. Reasoning is simple: How premises lead to the conclusion?

So, if Mayor's plan is that five dollar fee will lead to reduction in traffic congestion, then a flaw needs to indicate that five dollar fee will not lead to reduction in traffic congestion. This is what option B does.

Option B breaks this link in Mayor's reasoning: fee will exceed the cost of round trip bus fare ----> most people will switch to bus

Option B says that the cost of taking a private vehicle is already greater than the cost of round trip fare. It is already higher and people have not switched to buses. Right? So, Mayor's reasoning is incorrect.

On the other hand, option D just talks about preferences of people.

For example: if Indian PM Manmohan Singh says that making him the finance minister will lead to higher economic growth in the country.

Then, if everyone says that they do not want to make him finance minister and are happy with current economic growth, this fact is not a flaw in his reasoning.

A flaw should indicate that even after making him the finance minister, the economic growth will not be higher.

Does it help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

I have a Question here.

I thought of E as "only 20% of people in traffic are living within the city, so 80% are not. So 80% cannot use the buses for inside the city since they are probably coming from a neighbouring city. Even if they can use the bus, they must also drive their private vehicle to the city."

Do I think of it more like a Weaken question?
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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2017, 11:43
perfectstranger wrote:
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.

The answer is cleary B as the mayor predicts to solve traffic congestion problem via implementing a fee on city enterance, yet the money or cost will not make any sense to car owners because the parking fees are already high making car expense more expensive than bus fares.

Hello,

How do you assume that car expenses are more expensive than bus fares?
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2017, 14:06
As this is FIND THE FLAW IN ARGUMENT question.

Premise:
1. Mayor proposes to increase fee on private vehicles entering city with a claim that traffic within the city will reduce.
2. Mayor supports his claim by saying – this increased fees will lead to increased cost for driving a car in the city as compared to the round-trip cost by a bus

Conclusion: Many people will switch from car to bus

The mayor assumes that increasing the cost will change mind of people coming in car, however we need to look for an option that conveys that this change (increase in fees) will not be impacting car owners.

a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
- This supports mayors conclusion that people will shift to bus from car due to increase cost

b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
- This option says that already the cost of car parking makes getting car more expensive as compared to talking bus. Hence, this shows that the people don’t really care about the increase in the cost and hence even if the fees is imposed these people are still likely to get the car and not drive in bus. This looks like the correct answer, let’s review other options as well.

c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
- Talking about people riding in the bus and does not refer to the people who are coming in car in the city. Hence, this is OUT OF SCOPE.

d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
- This still does not highlight a flaw in the argument. It says commuters are fine to face traffic rather than paying fees

e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.
- This options is talking about people living within the city – we are looking for option talking about people leaving outside city and commuting by car in the city. This is IRRELEVANT.

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 21:35
A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?

Mayor's Reasoning / Proposal : Proposed Fees will lead to Switching the use of cars to using buses.
In order to indicate flaw : Proposed Fees may / will not lead to Switching the use of cars to using buses.

a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
If Price of gasoline increases, cost of taking private vehicle into city increases -- this option suggests this.
But would this dissuade people from using cars, we are not sure. It may or may not be. It is not given. So, just by knowing the facts of option A, we cannot say that the mayor's reasoning is flawed.

b) The cost of parking fees already makes it [b]considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.[/b]
Parking Fees -- already too high, but still people are taking private vehicles into city.
so, this option suggests - Proposed Fees will not lead to Switching the use of cars to using buses. If the people are paying the expensive parking fees already, so a fees of mere five dollars will not prohibit them from using the cars.

c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
so what?? But what about the other people who are owning the private vehicles?? We are not at all concerned with the people who are already riding the bus, we are only concerned with the people who are driving cars and whether they will switch to bus because of the proposed fees by the mayor. So, irrelevant.

d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
For every plan, there will be people who will be opposing it. But are we really concerned with them?? Does their opposition proves that the mayor's plan is flawed??
Also, to alleviate the problem of city's traffic congestion, it does not require that everyone switches from their cars to buses. Even if half of the people of the city does that, the problem would be lessened.

e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.
This means that vehicles coming from outside the city account for eighty percent of the city's traffic congestion. So, the plan is sound and the fee would deter atleast some of the people. This supports instead of weakens.
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A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 00:49
Posting the OE just in case you need to know the details of all eliminated choices:

A - This statement does not indicate whether the increased cost will dissuade people from taking private vehicles into the city, and therefore does not indicate whether the mayor's reasoning is flawed.

B is Correct - This statement properly identifies a flaw in the mayor's reasoning.

C - Current bus riders are not relevant to the mayor's plan, which anticipates only that people currently driving private vehicles into the city will become bus riders.

D - Many drivers may continue to commute in their private vehicles, but others might switch to buses. The mayor's plan does not anticipate a switch by all drivers.

E - The 20 percent figure shows that most congestion is caused by vehicles entering from outside the city; this does not point out a weakness in the mayor's plan.
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2017, 00:28
Why not choice A) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.

Does this option not mention another reason for the effect. i.e. The people will shift from car to bus not because of 5\$ fee but because of increased fuel cost which may make the total cost higher than the round-trip bus fare.

Hence, the reasoning that it is the 5\$ fee that makes commuters to switch to bus is flawed, because actual reason is the higher fuel cost.

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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2017, 02:47
MamtaKrishnia wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 39
Page: 131
Difficulty:

A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the mayor's reasoning is flawed?
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.

Breakup : 1. Mayor has proposed a 5\$ fee per day on private vehicles entering the city, claiming that the fee will alleviate the city's traffic congestion.
2. The mayor reasons that, since the fee will exceed the cost of round-trip bus fare from many nearby points, many people will switch from using their cars to using the bus.

So, basically mayor wants to say that people will start commuting with bus rather than paying 5\$ fee per day and hence more car wont enter the city, which in turn will reduce the traffic in the city.

Now which statement indicates that the mayor's reasoning is flawed..
a) Projected increases in the price of gasoline will increase the cost of taking private vehicle into the city.
Out of scope

b) The cost of parking fees already makes it considerable more expensive for most people to take a private vehicle into the city than to take a bus.
People are already paying the parking fees which is greater than the fare of round trip of bus. So , the less cost of bus fare is not a motivating factor for the people to leave the car and commute by bus.

c) Most of the people currently riding the bus do not own private vehicles.
No Relation

d) Many commuters opposing the mayor's plan have indicated that they would rather endure traffic congestion than pay a five dollar per day fee.
If people want to suffer than paying a 5\$ fee, it actually strengthens the argument.

e) During the average workday, private vehicles owned and operated by people living within the city account for twenty percent of the city's traffic congestion.
Out of scope, as the argument is a bout the vehicles which is entering the city from outside not for the vehicles which are already inside.
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Re: A certain mayor has proposed a fee of five dollars per day   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2017, 02:47

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