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# An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was

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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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C .

>A few months ago after El Chicn's large eruption in April 1982, air >temperatures throughout the region remained higher than >expected, given the long-term wather trends

weakens the generalized conclusion
>it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become >cooler than it would be otherwise
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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An usually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise

Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.

There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy seasons in India

A few months ago after El Chicn's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term wather trends.

The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.

tricky question

its between c and d but i ll chose D in this case because C sites a very specific example which took place before the event (1984) mentioned in the question stem

what is the OA for this one
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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Between C and D. I choose D.

C still remains possibility of correct generalization if El Chicn's large eruption is an exception from many other eruptions.
D goes deeply, saying severe winter cannot be an evidence.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.
The statement says nothing about Pacific waters. Eliminate it
There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy seasons in India
Nothing about rainy seasons. Eliminate it
A few months ago after El Chicn's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term wather trends.
Correct! It's a proof that volcanic eruptions have nothing to do with atmosphere climate, or at least no direct correlation with a lower temperature.
The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
In my opinion, it supports the statement, since it says that the eruption could indeed have a impact on the climate.
Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
Sondenso, what is OE for D

Unfortunately, I don't have OG right now.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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walker wrote:
Unfortunately, I have not OG now

Kidding!

Here you are!

D This statement supports the argument because it implies that volcanic eruptions cool the atmosphere, given that their effects mask the general warming trend.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
C in 1:28 min . i think D does nothing but strengthen the argument
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
IMO C

Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.(means it will stay hot)

(C) A few months after El Chichn's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained [highlight]higher than expected[/highlight], given the long-term weather trends (another reason the temp. was higher not because of eruption) weaken the argument.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
no reasoning gap in the argument hence a defender answer option requiring a third party element here.

C does the same,comparing with a situation which didn't follow the rhetoric mentioned in the argument.

Thus C.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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IMO - C

Conclusion: it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.
(this is very generalized statement, saying it is ALWAYS bound to be true that ALL the major eruption cause the atmosphere to become cooler)

Assumption: There is NO evidence that the major eruptions WOULD have caused the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

Hit the assumption to get the weakener: There are SOME evidence that the major eruptions WOULD NOT have caused the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

A) This is stating about unusual warming of Pacific waters, NOT about atmosphere. WRONG
B) So what? the severity of the rainy seasons in India does not mean atmosphere (generalized for all continents/countries). WRONG
C) Yeah, this is an example where the generalized conclusion is countered. CORRECT.
D) "temporarily mask the general warming trend" - This is strengthening than weakening. WRONG
E) "sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall." Firstly, this is strengthening and secondly, it is talking about SEA SURFACE, NOT generalized ATMOSPHERE as in the conclusion. WRONG
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
I see this as a case of Cause-Effect
Volcano-->Haze-->Winter (Lower temperature). Hence, we need to show that
Any other Cause can cause same effect. This would weaken the Conclusion-->Option C gives this

As for Option--D "The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere"....

Warming trend will be masked..means that Warming will reduce-->Cooling of atmosphere-->Lowering the temperature..This will strenthen as the Cause is "Volcano" here

Regards
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the Europeans republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984.
Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

(A) The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.
(This confirms that cooling effect is triggered by eruptions and does not weaken the claim.)

(B) There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy season in India.
(we are not seeking reason for rainy season but winter season and This does not explain how the link is between eruptions and season, it just says that it is strong but nothing else)

(C) A few months after EI Chichon’s large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term weather trends.
(Instead of being cooler, the temperature remained higher even after eruption weakens the conclusion.)

(D) The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(eruptions mask the warm trend means that eruptions cause cooling temporarily...........strengthener.)

(E) Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.
This defined the result at only coast and if not anything else strengthens the conclusion
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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pinoygmat wrote:
what's wrong with D? Can't seem to eliminate this one

(D) The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(eruptions mask the warm trend means that eruptions cause cooling temporarily
whether the reaction is temporary or permanent does not matter.
whether eruption causes cooling or not is the concerned aspect here.
This confirms that the eruption causes cooling and therefore
This is a..........strengthener.)
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
An usually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise

Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.

There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy seasons in India

A few months ago after El Chicn's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term wather trends.

The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.

we need to demonstrate that volcanic eruptions - not always leads to cooling of the atmosphere.
A - irrelevant
B - irrelevant
C - ok, so after eruptions, the weather was higher than usual long term trend. so volcanic eruptions caused the increase of the temperature.
D - irrelevant
E - this one actually supports rather than weaken.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
An usually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise

Which of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

Something happened after other thing happened. If we assume causality by saying that what happened before caused what happened after then we are using the flawed concept and prone to attacks by critiques.

(A) The cooling effect triggered by volcanic eruptions in 1985 was counteracted by an unusual warming of Pacific waters.
This tells what happened to the effect of a cause. -- OFS

(B) There is a strong statistical link between volcanic eruptions and the severity of the rainy season in India.
Is this necessary if eruption is linked to rain then it is linked to winters as well? - OFS

(C) A few months after El Chichn's large eruption in April 1982, air temperatures throughout the region remained higher than expected, given the long-term weather trends.
This is weakening by right methodology. It tells that the cause had a different effect. i.e. eruption had brought higher temperature. Conclusion said eruption makes atmosphere cooler. Weakened!

(D) The climatic effects of major volcanic eruptions can temporarily mask the general warming trend resulting from an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
This is says eruption can temporarily make the atmosphere cooler. So supports a little bit but does not weaken at all.

(E) Three months after an early springtime eruption in South America during the late 19th century, sea surface temperatures near the coast began to fall.
Strengthens.
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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An usually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

Bunuel

Please change " usually " to "unusually"(as per GMAT prep 5)

Thanks,
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Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
deepudalan wrote:
An usually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was blanketed by a blue haze resulting from the eruption of the Laki Volcano in the European republic of Iceland in the summer of 1984. Thus, it is evident that major eruptions cause the atmosphere to become cooler than it would be otherwise.

Bunuel

Please change " usually " to "unusually"(as per GMAT prep 5)

Thanks,

___________________
Done. Thank you.
Re: An unusually severe winter occurred in Europe after the continent was [#permalink]
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