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During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners

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During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2015, 15:02
10
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A
B
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During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners--Runners A and Runners B--take part in an experiment measuring their VO2 max, the volume of oxygen an athlete can use. During these sessions, the runners engaged in moderate aerobic activity, or a sustained heart rate between 146-154 beats per minute. At the end of the sessions, Runner A had a greater VO2 max than Runner B. Therefore, once the two runners begin identical intensive training--sessions involving over 168 beats per minute-- for the race season, Runner A will continue to have the greater VO2 max, assuming that neither become injured and that both train with similar intensity.

Which of the following is an assumption upon which the argument rests?

A) Runner A and Runner B had similar VO2 maxes uponentering the study.
B) Regarding their VO2 maxes, runners respond equally to intensive training.
C) Intensive training involves sessions in which athletes maintain a heartbeat over 168 beats per minute.
D) The amount one trains does not influence one’s VO2 max.
E) During the experiment, Runner A did not always have the greater VO2 max than Runner B.

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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2015, 02:03
Harley1980 wrote:
During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners--Runners A and Runners B--take part in an experiment measuring their VO2 max, the volume of oxygen an athlete can use. During these sessions, the runners engaged in moderate aerobic activity, or a sustained heart rate between 146-154 beats per minute. At the end of the sessions, Runner A had a greater VO2 max than Runner B. Therefore, once the two runners begin identical intensive training--sessions involving over 168 beats per minute-- for the race season, Runner A will continue to have the greater VO2 max, assuming that neither become injured and that both train with similar intensity.

Which of the following is an assumption upon which the argument rests?

A) Runner A and Runner B had similar VO2 maxes uponentering the study.
B) Regarding their VO2 maxes, runners respond equally to intensive training.
C) Intensive training involves sessions in which athletes maintain a heartbeat over 168 beats per minute.
D) The amount one trains does not influence one’s VO2 max.
E) During the experiment, Runner A did not always have the greater VO2 max than Runner B.


I think answer should be D. If we assume the amount one trains does not influence one's VO2 max, the argument falls apart. In the case of aerobic activity, if one runner had a heart rate of 146 and the other had 156, definitely their rate of activity is different. Now, since their heart rate is 168 beats per minute, we see an increase which will result in change of VO2 max.
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2015, 04:42
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KS15 wrote:
Harley1980 wrote:
During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners--Runners A and Runners B--take part in an experiment measuring their VO2 max, the volume of oxygen an athlete can use. During these sessions, the runners engaged in moderate aerobic activity, or a sustained heart rate between 146-154 beats per minute. At the end of the sessions, Runner A had a greater VO2 max than Runner B. Therefore, once the two runners begin identical intensive training--sessions involving over 168 beats per minute-- for the race season, Runner A will continue to have the greater VO2 max, assuming that neither become injured and that both train with similar intensity.

Which of the following is an assumption upon which the argument rests?

A) Runner A and Runner B had similar VO2 maxes uponentering the study.
B) Regarding their VO2 maxes, runners respond equally to intensive training.
C) Intensive training involves sessions in which athletes maintain a heartbeat over 168 beats per minute.
D) The amount one trains does not influence one’s VO2 max.
E) During the experiment, Runner A did not always have the greater VO2 max than Runner B.


I think answer should be D. If we assume the amount one trains does not influence one's VO2 max, the argument falls apart. In the case of aerobic activity, if one runner had a heart rate of 146 and the other had 156, definitely their rate of activity is different. Now, since their heart rate is 168 beats per minute, we see an increase which will result in change of VO2 max.



Hello KS15
Conclusion in argument says that runners will react on intensive training in similar way as they react on calm training. For example if runner A has a different reaction on intensive training and spends much more O2 during it then finally runner B will have greater VO2 max and conclusion is wrong.

Answer B gives us this assumption and says that there is no difference in runners reaction on intensive training.

Let apply negation test to answer D:
"The amount one trains does not influence one’s VO2 max."
Does this destroy conclusion? No it just say that training influences VO2 max so this fact change nothing: maybe conclusion correct maybe not.

D is tempting because if it true then conclusion is true: if VO2 max doesn't change from trainings then after intensive training Runner A will have greater VO2 max.
But this is not assumption because this answer does not support logic of argument:
If VO2 max does not change from training then all argument reasonings about moderate and intensive trainings do not have any sense: runner A will have greater VO2 max independently from amount and intensivity of trainings.
Negation test quickly helps to see fact that answer D is not assumption.
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2015, 05:24
Hi everyone,

For the conclusion to hold true,it must be proved that the intensive training sessions have an equal effect on both the athletes.
The argument can be attacked by saying that Runner B performance increases during the intense training exercises and that of A falls.To shield the argument from this avenue of attack,it is necessary to have this defender assumption

Hope I am clear.

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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2015, 07:49
Harley1980 wrote:
During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners--Runners A and Runners B--take part in an experiment measuring their VO2 max, the volume of oxygen an athlete can use. During these sessions, the runners engaged in moderate aerobic activity, or a sustained heart rate between 146-154 beats per minute. At the end of the sessions, Runner A had a greater VO2 max than Runner B. Therefore, once the two runners begin identical intensive training--sessions involving over 168 beats per minute-- for the race season, Runner A will continue to have the greater VO2 max, assuming that neither become injured and that both train with similar intensity.

Which of the following is an assumption upon which the argument rests?

A) Runner A and Runner B had similar VO2 maxes uponentering the study.
B) Regarding their VO2 maxes, runners respond equally to intensive training.
C) Intensive training involves sessions in which athletes maintain a heartbeat over 168 beats per minute.
D) The amount one trains does not influence one’s VO2 max.
E) During the experiment, Runner A did not always have the greater VO2 max than Runner B.


Simply put - the argument assumes that the difference /trend will maintain.
B confirms the same .
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2015, 05:31
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if A>B, then A+x>B+x

Because x the same

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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2016, 14:41
straightforward answer is option B,because if we negate statement B the conclusion falls flat
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2016, 12:53
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Harley1980 wrote:
During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners--Runners A and Runners B--take part in an experiment measuring their VO2 max, the volume of oxygen an athlete can use. During these sessions, the runners engaged in moderate aerobic activity, or a sustained heart rate between 146-154 beats per minute. At the end of the sessions, Runner A had a greater VO2 max than Runner B. Therefore, once the two runners begin identical intensive training--sessions involving over 168 beats per minute-- for the race season, Runner A will continue to have the greater VO2 max, assuming that neither become injured and that both train with similar intensity.

Which of the following is an assumption upon which the argument rests?

A) Runner A and Runner B had similar VO2 maxes uponentering the study.
B) Regarding their VO2 maxes, runners respond equally to intensive training.
C) Intensive training involves sessions in which athletes maintain a heartbeat over 168 beats per minute.
D) The amount one trains does not influence one’s VO2 max.
E) During the experiment, Runner A did not always have the greater VO2 max than Runner B.



Simplify: VO2 measurement between A &B
engaged in conditions: mod activity and 145-154 beats/min
Results : Vo2(A) > Vo2(B)
some missing assumption
Conclusion : if identical training imparted, definitely Vo2(A) > Vo2(B)

Solution : Use negation method.
A) Runner A and Runner B did not have similar VO2 maxes upon entering the study --> This doesn't affects the conclusion in any way .

B) Regarding their VO2 maxes, runners respond differently to intensive training --> IF this was the case, then conclusion falls apart. It might be that due to difference in response, Vo2 B might be greater than Vo2 A. This is the answer.

C) Intensive training doesn't involves sessions in which athletes maintain a heartbeat over 168 beats per minute --> This tells about the the consistency of heartbeat, but in no way it affects the conclusion as to why Vo2(A) should be greater than Vo2(B).

D) The amount one trains influence one’s VO2 max. --> The argument says that “both will train with similar intensity” and will engage in “identical intensive training”.

E) During the experiment, Runner A always have the greater VO2 max than Runner B --> This mentions that there was no affect of identical training conditions, that there was by default some great powers in A. so this too doesn't affect the argument as to why Vo2(A) should be greater than Vo2(B).
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2018, 23:38
"continue to have" is the key word here. This makes sense to me now. The POE technique helps to boil down to A, B and D.
If ones do not understand the argument, then they probably choose D instead of B.
Certainly, ones will be likely to drop A b/c A does not show how the result of the study connects with the conclusion.
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2018, 23:28

Official Explanation:


Premise #1 – A > B (VO2 max) after moderate aerobic activity.

Conclusion: Runners will begin identical intensive training, A will continue to have greater V02 max.

Assumption: The effects of intensive training on the two runners are equivalent to the effects of moderate aerobic training.

(A) directly contradicts what is stated in the passage: Runner A had a greater VO2 max than B.

(B), if it is not true, represents a possible flaw in the conclusion. Say Runner A responds to intensive training differently than Runner B, then it is possible that Runner A will NOT have a greater VO2 max than runner B.

(C) just quantifies what is meant by intensive training. It doesn’t relate to the argument as a whole.

(D) is tempting but remember the argument says that “both will train with similar intensity” and will engage in “identical intensive training”.

(E) is somewhat of a weakener. That is, it points to the possibility that the VO2 max fluctuated throughout the experiment and Runner A just happened to have the higher VO2 max at the very end of training.

An assumption, however, doesn’t weaken the conclusion, but is the very foundation upon which the conclusion rests. That’s why we negate assumptions. In other words, if I pull the foundation out from under the house and that house still stands, then the original assumption was not one that supported the conclusion. However, if I negate the assumption and the conclusion then totally falls apart, we know the original assumption is one upon which the argument depends.

By negating (E), “Runner A always had the greater VO2 max…”, we actually strengthen the conclusion. Therefore, (E) is not the answer.
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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2018, 02:34
GMATNinja, daagh

I used to think, negating assumption should shatter the conclusion.

please clear my confusion.

aragonn wrote:

Official Explanation:


Premise #1 – A > B (VO2 max) after moderate aerobic activity.

Conclusion: Runners will begin identical intensive training, A will continue to have greater V02 max.

Assumption: The effects of intensive training on the two runners are equivalent to the effects of moderate aerobic training.

(A) directly contradicts what is stated in the passage: Runner A had a greater VO2 max than B.

(B), if it is not true, represents a possible flaw in the conclusion. Say Runner A responds to intensive training differently than Runner B, then it is possible that Runner A will NOT have a greater VO2 max than runner B.

(C) just quantifies what is meant by intensive training. It doesn’t relate to the argument as a whole.

(D) is tempting but remember the argument says that “both will train with similar intensity” and will engage in “identical intensive training”.

(E) is somewhat of a weakener. That is, it points to the possibility that the VO2 max fluctuated throughout the experiment and Runner A just happened to have the higher VO2 max at the very end of training.

An assumption, however, doesn’t weaken the conclusion, but is the very foundation upon which the conclusion rests. That’s why we negate assumptions. In other words, if I pull the foundation out from under the house and that house still stands, then the original assumption was not one that supported the conclusion. However, if I negate the assumption and the conclusion then totally falls apart, we know the original assumption is one upon which the argument depends.

By negating (E), “Runner A always had the greater VO2 max…”, we actually strengthen the conclusion. Therefore, (E) is not the answer.

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Re: During the period in which there are no competitive races, two runners   [#permalink] 06 Jun 2018, 02:34
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