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Eminent economists believe that among the most

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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 08:37
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Error Analysis: Economists considers a list of signs of a looming economy. This list needs to be parallel. List contains adjectives "high debt levels" & " defaulting loans" in the non-underlined portion. Therefore, remaining items should be parallel in the underlined portion.
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- incorrect -parallelism error in the list of adjectives
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- incorrect-parallel list is still wrong with "reducing tax revenues"
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-incorrect-same as B
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-incorrect- "reduction" is correct but "decreasing of " is wrong as its not parallel
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Correct- List is parallel with adjectives "reduction" & "decrease in"

Originally posted by Kumar Utkarsh on 16 Jul 2019, 21:14.
Last edited by Kumar Utkarsh on 17 Jul 2019, 08:37, edited 1 time in total.
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New post Updated on: 22 Jul 2019, 01:05
Analyzing the sentence we find that there are three signs of looming recession-
1. high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, which result in defaulting loans and other delinquencies
2. reduction in tax revenues. (This is not a result of defaulting loans. This is the second sign. So it cannot be a verb-ing).
3. A decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. (This is not a result of reducing tax revenues. This is the third sign. So it cannot be a verb-ing).

Let us examine the rest:

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Corrects all the errors.

Answer E

Originally posted by Sayon on 16 Jul 2019, 21:32.
Last edited by Sayon on 22 Jul 2019, 01:05, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 21:47
Most prominent signs are .... high debt levels (adjective + noun) , defaulting loans (verbing+noun, here present particle acts as adjective)

reducing tax revenues v/s reduction in tax revenues
reducing tax revenue - verbing + noun -> present participle acts as adjective
reduction in -> is the noun , that describes there was reduction in total revenue.
As we are describing the actions from the previous parallelism indicators -> reducing is parallel

Decreasing/Decrease - can act as verb or noun
e.g. That resulted in decrease in (noun form) expenses or prices have decreased (verb)
Decrease in something indicates noun form of decrease
Decreasing of -> is not the right form of decrease either in capacity of verb or noun because of 'of' . Decreasing itself is a verb or present participle of decrease. we can say decreasing rates

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
is not correct because of decreasing of

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
this one mentions plural form of "decreases" suggesting multiple decreases in rates ; that changes the original meaning.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing and decrease in -> both are parallel and are in correct form

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing is parallel to other elements, decreasing of is not the correct form.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing is parallel to other elements

C is the answer
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 22:17
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

This sentence is talking about the prominent signs which include high debt level, reduction.... and decrease...

The sentence has parallelism error. All the above list should be in a parallel form.
defaulting loans and other delinquencies: This is modifying the high debt levels. So it wont be parallel.


A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Not parallel to high debt.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Decreases is singular. Incorrect. and no parallelism.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Not parallel to high debt

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Not parallel to high debt.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct.

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 22:26
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Correct

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

C is correct
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 22:33
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Eliminate A

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Eliminate B

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct[/color]

D.[color=#ed1c24] reduction in tax revenues
, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Eliminate

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Eliminate

Ans Choice C - CORRECT
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 23:03
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A.reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels {Not parallel}
B. reducing tax revenuesanddecreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels...{ Need a comma before 'and'. Also, reducing tax revenues is not parallel}
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels..{Not parallel}
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels....{Not parallel}
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.... Correct option

IMO E
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 23:14
1
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
incorrect parallelism all the items in parallel should be noun use of participle is wrong

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
incorrect parallelism---reducing is wrong here ---decreases are incorrect we need decrease----also if we write ( A and B) comma is not required before AND
but if there are more than two items we write A, B, and C comma is required before AND

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing is a participle ---we need the noun to be in parallel with the other items

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
incorrect parallelism

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
correct parallelism all the items parallel are a noun (CORRECT)
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 23:22
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A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - not parallel to high debt levels and decreasing of is unidiomatic
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - not parallel to high debt levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing is not parallel to high debt
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - decreasing of is unidiomatic and not parallel to high debt
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reduction and decrease are parallel to high debt. Correct
Answer: E
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 23:35
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing is correct. no need to add "of"....................................................eliminated.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
it should be "decrease" not decreases.........................................................eliminated.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
looks alright......................................................................................correct.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Reducing" and other reason same as "A".......................................................eliminated.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Reducing tax revenues" is correct. Since it is the on going process................eliminated.


ANSWER: C
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 23:50
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing tax revenues is in present continuous tense which is not correct, also decreasing of unnempolyment rates is not correct.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing tax revenues is in present continuous tense which is not correct, also decreases of unnempolyment rates is not correct.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing tax revenues is in present continuous tense which is not correct, also
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - decreasing of unnempolyment rates is not correct.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct
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New post Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 00:19
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A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Inside two commas, we have not essential modifier, which if removed, by default, does not hurt meaning. Thus, let's remove "defaulting loans and other delinquencies" so that it does not distract us from list of things/actions. ("defaulting" is an ing-modifier that modifies "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments". In other words, we can say how does high debt amid optimistic sentiments? By defaulting loans and other delinquencies" ) Once removed, we get a list of nouns "high debt levels..., reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates", no parallelism observed between this list, thus original sentence is wrong.
In B, we have "high debt levels..., reducing tax revenues, and decreases of unemployment rates", again parallelism is not maintained, let alone the meaning! Out
In C, we have "high debt levels..., reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates", although this one is by far the best, it is not perfect because of that 'reducing'. Lets see further if we have a better option. (Spoiler, we do). For now, eliminate C
In D, we have "high debt levels, reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing ...." almost perfect but almost is not counted. Again, I observe no parallelism. Thus out.
In E, we have "high debt levels, reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates" - perfection is found. we have all items in nice parallel form. Besides, I love that parallelism in 'reduction in" AND 'decrease in"
Answer is E, IMO

Originally posted by mira93 on 17 Jul 2019, 00:05.
Last edited by mira93 on 17 Jul 2019, 00:19, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 00:32
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
parallel structure error since all have to be noun/noun phrase

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (not parallel to defaulting loans.....etc.)
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (not parallel to the above)
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (nope!)
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (not parallel)
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (Correct)

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 01:04
Error Analysis: 'decreasing of unemployment rates' is incorrect. "decrease in unemployment rate' is the right form. ' reduction in tax revenues' is much better than 'reducing tax revenues', and conveys the right meaning.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Incorrect
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels Incorrect
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Correct

Ans:E
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 01:34
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Hi Folks,
In the given sentence, economists believe that there are a few prominent signs of looming recessions. Hence these must be parallel in structure. "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments" and "defaulting loans and other delinquencies" are in non-underlined portion of the sentence and are nouns. So, other entities also must be noun or noun phrases.

A. reducing tax revenues (Action), and decreasing of unemployment rates(Action) to extraordinary levels :Incorrect
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : Same as A Incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : Same as A Incorrect
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : Corrects one but decreasing is still a trend/action. Incorrect
E. reduction in tax revenues (Noun phrase), and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (Noun phrase) : Correct
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 02:38
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I eliminated A, B, D immediately due to parallelism errors. Between C and E, I finally selected E because reduction is noun and we need noun to be parallel to decrease. E is my answer
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:19
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

We need to check parallelism amongst the signs of looming recession :

    high debt levels
    defaulting loans and other delinquencies
    reducing tax revenues
    decreasing of unemployment rates

A & D are out because of "of".

Now, Between B, C & E, the decision point is:
    reducing tax revenues
    OR
    reduction in tax revenues

reducing tax revenues seems correct.

The difference between B & C : the plural "decreases" vs singular and C has a comma before and.

I would go with (C)

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:19
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.


First 3-2 split, reducing tax revenues vs reduction in tax , -ing is used as a verb and -ion is used as a noun, since the sentence is essentially lists we need a noun.
the signs or looming recession are reduction in is correct,

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Eliminate a,b,c

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

second spilt, decreasing of vs decrease in

decrease in would be parallel, answer E
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:22
The correct answer is B. This because it is parallel to the the other signs of a looming recession expressed in earlier on.
In option A, decreasing of unemployment rates should have been decreasing unemployment rates. Of used after decreasing is not appropriate. In C, decrease should rather be decreases. D has same issue as A. E is not parallel.

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:25
Answer is E
Since we have conjunction "and" in underlined part, we are dealing with parallelism and both sides of "and" must be parallel. In original sentence, A, reducing and decreasing of are not parallel, which is wrong. In B, we observe similar case since reducing is not parallel to decrease. C makes the same mistake by not holding reducing and decrease parallel. D is much better than all other options but still makes error by not holding reduction and decreasing parallel. Only E keeps parallelism reduction and decrease.
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