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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus reve

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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus reve  [#permalink]

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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?


(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.

(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.

(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.

(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.

(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.


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Originally posted by scorpio7 on 14 Jun 2009, 19:23.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Sep 2018, 03:34, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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QOTD: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2018, 03:46
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The archaeologists conclude that the destruction found in Kourion was caused by an earthquake near Cyprus in the year A.D. 365. Here’s how they arrive at that conclusion:

    1. They found a pattern of destruction in Kourion (a city on the island of Cyprus).
    2. This pattern is typically found in towns devastated by earthquakes.
    3. An earthquake took place near Cyprus in A.D. 365.
    4. Therefore, this earthquake is what caused the destruction of Kourion.

And the question is asking: which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?

To strengthen this argument, we'll need to rule out other causes of the same pattern of destruction or find evidence that Kourion was actually devastated in A.D. 365, not sometime before or after the earthquake.

Quote:
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.

If Kourion was devastated in A.D. 365, we wouldn’t expect to see any drinking vessels originating from after that year. Choice (A) weakens the argument, so we’ll eliminate it.

Quote:
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.

Choice (B) presents exactly the kind of evidence we need to back the archaeologists. If they found pre-365 coinage in the debris but couldn’t find a single coin created after 365, then we’d be more inclined to believe that the earthquake in A.D. 365 did in fact devastate Kourion. Let’s keep this and continue eliminating choices.

Quote:
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.

Choice (C) doesn’t give us any new information. It may strengthen the fact that an earthquake took place in this year, but doesn’t strengthen the argument that this earthquake caused the destruction seen in Kourion. Let’s eliminate choice (C).

Quote:
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.

Choice (D) would neither strengthen nor weaken the argument, which places the destruction of Kourion in A.D. 365. If these small statues were carved between 300 and 365, choice (D) would strengthen the argument. If these small statues were carved between 365 and 400, choice (D) would weaken the argument. Since we don’t know when exactly the statues were carved, we’ll eliminate choice (D).

Quote:
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

This evidence weakens the argument because it presents an artifact that was created after the year of the earthquake in A.D. 365. Let’s eliminate choice (E).

Answer choice (B) is the best option.
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus reve  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2009, 09:44
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I guess B would be the right option.

A. Bronze ceremonial drinking vassals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion. We are talking about Kourion 'near' will not help.
B. No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
C. Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365. Earthquake can occur but that destroyed the city is not indicated.
D. Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion. does not help
E. Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion. Information not required.
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus reve  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2010, 05:26
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scorpio7 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion. - The word following implies quake can also have happened in 366 or 367
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365. - Nearby earthquake has no significance - Earthquake in India did not cause one in pakistan :lol:
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion. - same as A
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.- weakens the argument

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus reve  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2011, 01:10
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the matter here is why C is wrong

I think C is wrong because C RESTATES EVIDENCE. Restate or contradict evidence is alway wrong in A, W, S questions. Restate evidence can be correct in Inference questions.

this is trick many Gmapprep questions contain. Please, download CR gmatprep question collection to practice.

In OG book, I do not see this kind of trick-restate or contradict evidence.

the answer choice which RESTATE EVIDENCE is very attractive in Assumption and Strenthen questions. The answer choice which CONTRADICT EVIDENCE is very attractive in Weaken questions. We only realize this trick wrong answer choice when we see the correct choice beside. When we see 2 answer choice are attractive, think about this trick to be the winner

there are 2 tricks I see on gmatprep questions, 1- affecting conclusion outside context of evidence, 2- offer scenario which strenthen or weaken but do not offer action which strenthen, weaken. though it is easy for us to understand the explanation, we get the question right hard.

we have to master this trick by creating an arguement, creating the answer choices.

hi, friends, please, give your idea on this. and remember, pracite on formal questions like this.
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 00:33
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PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.


A classic example of the importance of trying to brainstorm and accurately predict the assumption before you look through the answer choices!

We're trying to conclude that the destruction in question was caused by a particular earthquake that occurred in A.D. 365. But the only premise is that the destruction was caused by some earthquake. What's the gap here? We don't have any evidence that the earthquake responsible for the damage was the one that happened in A.D. 365!

We need to assume that this particular earthquake (and not some other) was indeed the culprit. Since this is a Strengthen question, the correct answer should somehow affirm that assumption.

(A) If anything, this weakens because these vessels were from the time period "preceding and following A.D. 365. Eliminate.
(B) Here we have artifacts before the date in question, but not after the date in question. This would definitely support the hypothesis that the earthquake occurred in A.D. 365. Leave in for now.
(C) We've already established that there was an earthquake near Cyprus in A.D. 365 ("known to have occurred near [Cyprus] in A.D. 365"). The question of whether this was the particular earthquake that destroyed Kourion still remains1. Eliminate.
(D) Same problem as (A) – we have artifacts on either side of the date in question (A.D. 365). Eliminate.
(E) Another weakening statement. If stone inscriptions dated to a time after 365 A.D. were found in Kourion, that actually suggests the city was destroyed at a later data. Eliminate.

So, we're down to the correct answer (B). Notice that without understanding what we really want the correct answer to do – i.e., provide evidence of civilization of before A.D. 365 but not after - we could very easily be led astray here by answer choices. Even when you can't successfully predict exactly the correct answer assumptions-related questions, you should still take the time to give it your best shot!

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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 09:21
Hi Mike, I am not able to understand the difference between option B & C. As per "MarkSullivan" the earthquake must had happend in A.D. 365 but option B can also mean that earthquake happened in 364 or any year prior to A.D. 365. In option C the word "Near" is the cause of concern. Can you kindly explain where am i wrong. Waiting for your valuable inputs. Regards, Fame
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2013, 09:32
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PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Quote:
Hi Mike, I am not able to understand the difference between option B & C. As per "MarkSullivan" the earthquake must had happend in A.D. 365 but option B can also mean that earthquake happened in 364 or any year prior to A.D. 365. In option C the word "Near" is the cause of concern. Can you kindly explain where am i wrong. Waiting for your valuable inputs. Regards, Fame

MarkSullivan indeed gave a very good explanation for this post.
Fame, one BIG GMAT CR idea ---- the evidence given in the prompt is non-negotiably true. We just have to accept it as fact. In this particular prompt, one such fact is "a major earthquake [was] known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365." For the purpose of analyzing this question, that is gospel truth, beyond all debate.

Because the evidence is non-negotiably true, any answer choice that either re-affirms the evidence or directly contradicts the evidence is not correct.
Option (C) directly restates the fact given in the prompt --- the only thing added is that apparently this earthquake is mentioned in modern histories of Cyprus. Both the prompt and (C) use the word "near" in precisely the same way --- the epicenter was not on the island, but near the island. Answer (C) restates the evidence of the prompt ---> automatically wrong.

By contrast, (B) introduces a completely new line of thinking, which dovetails nicely with the rest of the argument. I believe you didn't read careful what MarkSullivan said. He said: "Here we have artifacts before the date in question, but not after the date in question. This would definitely support the hypothesis that the earthquake occurred in A.D. 365." In other words, the town of Kourion was making coins in 362, in 362, in 364 --- perfectly fine coin manufacturing in all those years. Then the earthquake strikes in 365, so no more coins. Choice (B) clearly says: "coins minted before that year were found in abundance", which implies --- plenty of coins from 362 & 363 & 364. In other words, plenty of coins right up until the earthquake.
More to the point, you are calling everything into question. That's sloppy thinking. You are not being precise in the way you approach CR. The evidence is absolutely unquestionable. One piece of evidence is: the earthquake was known to occur in 365. That's beyond doubt. There is absolutely no ambiguity about the date of the earthquake, so any attention to the date of the earthquake is entirely besides the point.
The conclusion of the argument is NOT that an earthquake occurred in 365. The existence of that earthquake at that date is simply presented as fact, beyond debate. The conclusion is that the town of Kourion was suddenly destroyed in that earthquake. That's where your attention should be, not on the date of the earthquake.

GMAT CR is NOT about questioning everything. Distractor answers, like (C) here, are designed to get you puzzling about things that are actually beyond debate. You have to get into the habit of recognizing that all the evidence given is true and absolutely beyond question. Otherwise, the distractor answers will continue to trap you.

Mike :-)
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2014, 09:54
I get why answer B is correct, but I still can't shake off why answer C isn't correct.

The conclusion "Archeologists have hypothesized the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.".

When I looked at it, I was thinking of finding answers that support that in fact there was a major earthquake near the island (Ans C) and not something else that destroyed Kourion. Ans B supports the fact that the city doesn't exist after A.D. 365 but doesn't explain how the city was destroyed.

I have a hard time figuring what's really at play here and what the real answer should be.
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New post 05 Oct 2014, 19:51
beef001 wrote:
I get why answer B is correct, but I still can't shake off why answer C isn't correct.

The conclusion "Archeologists have hypothesized the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.".

When I looked at it, I was thinking of finding answers that support that in fact there was a major earthquake near the island (Ans C) and not something else that destroyed Kourion. Ans B supports the fact that the city doesn't exist after A.D. 365 but doesn't explain how the city was destroyed.

I have a hard time figuring what's really at play here and what the real answer should be.

Dear beef001,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, notice that Mark Sullivan of MGMAT gave a good detailed explanation on this page, and then I did as well. Did you read through these explanations? We both addressed this very point about which you are asking? Is there something in our explanations that you don't understand? If you read our responses and are still left with doubts, please tell us which part of what we said doesn't resonate with you or convince you.

Two important skills for being an excellent student:
1) take maximum advantage of all the resources you have at your disposal
2) when you have the opportunity to ask questions, ask excellent questions. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/asking-exc ... questions/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2016, 11:51
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souvik101990 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?


The following suggests that the city was destroyed
Quote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion...pattern of debris and collapsed buildings


Thus after 365 AD the ancient city of Kourion did not exist !!


A. Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion. - Incorrect the sentence talks about existance of the ancient city of Kourion after 365AD

B. No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance. - Correct !! :-D :-D

C. Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365. - Out of Scope

D. Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion. - Incorrect the sentence talks about existance of the ancient city of Kourion after 365AD, ie 365AD - 400 AD

E. Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion - Incorrect the sentence talks about existance of the ancient city of Kourion after 365AD
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2017, 21:53
mikemcgarry wrote:
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Quote:
Hi Mike, I am not able to understand the difference between option B & C. As per "MarkSullivan" the earthquake must had happend in A.D. 365 but option B can also mean that earthquake happened in 364 or any year prior to A.D. 365. In option C the word "Near" is the cause of concern. Can you kindly explain where am i wrong. Waiting for your valuable inputs. Regards, Fame

MarkSullivan indeed gave a very good explanation for this post.
Fame, one BIG GMAT CR idea ---- the evidence given in the prompt is non-negotiably true. We just have to accept it as fact. In this particular prompt, one such fact is "a major earthquake [was] known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365." For the purpose of analyzing this question, that is gospel truth, beyond all debate.

Because the evidence is non-negotiably true, any answer choice that either re-affirms the evidence or directly contradicts the evidence is not correct.
Option (C) directly restates the fact given in the prompt --- the only thing added is that apparently this earthquake is mentioned in modern histories of Cyprus. Both the prompt and (C) use the word "near" in precisely the same way --- the epicenter was not on the island, but near the island. Answer (C) restates the evidence of the prompt ---> automatically wrong.

By contrast, (B) introduces a completely new line of thinking, which dovetails nicely with the rest of the argument. I believe you didn't read careful what MarkSullivan said. He said: "Here we have artifacts before the date in question, but not after the date in question. This would definitely support the hypothesis that the earthquake occurred in A.D. 365." In other words, the town of Kourion was making coins in 362, in 362, in 364 --- perfectly fine coin manufacturing in all those years. Then the earthquake strikes in 365, so no more coins. Choice (B) clearly says: "coins minted before that year were found in abundance", which implies --- plenty of coins from 362 & 363 & 364. In other words, plenty of coins right up until the earthquake.


Mike :-)


In MUST BE TRUE questions... would C make a lot of sense??
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2017, 22:49
deependra1234 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.


In MUST BE TRUE questions... would C make a lot of sense??

Dear deependra1234,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

Even if this were a "must be true" question, I don't think (C) would work. Right now, from the prompt, we know for a fact that the major earthquake occurred in A.D. 365. When did this fact become evident to researchers? Was this known for hundreds of years or was it discovered, say, by revolutionary discoveries just last year? We don't know how long this fact has been established.

Now, these modern histories of Cyprus--probably published, say, in the last 50 years. Were these published long after the fact of this earthquake was known, or before? Again, we don't know. There's a possibility because of timing it might not have been known to the authors of the books.

Suppose the earthquake as fact has been well-established for a while and suppose every author of a book about the modern history of Cyprus clearly knew about the earthquake--even then, does it mean that these authors would mention it? Authors only mention facts that fit their agenda. We know this earthquake happened, but we don't know anything about whatever political or economic ramifications it had. Was the earthquake in the middle of a populated area, or was it in the wilderness somewhere, such that no one at the time was aware? We don't know. Even if the earthquake simply had the effect, say, of killing a bunch of poor peasants, it is possible that it had zero effect on the economic situation as a whole and zero effect on political succession of power, and therefore was not worthy of mention in the history books. Even if it had some significant economic or political effect, an author with a different agenda might not want to mention it.

There are at least a few reasons that this fact would not fit the "must be true" criterion, given what we know. The "must be true" questions is in many respects identical to the inference questions. I will recommend this blog:
GMAT Critical Reasoning: Find the Conclusion or Inference

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: QOTD: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2018, 05:55
GMATNinja

Quote:
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.

Quote:
Choice (B) presents exactly the kind of evidence we need to back the archaeologists. If they found pre-365 coinage in the debris but couldn’t find a single coin created after 365, then we’d be more inclined to believe that the earthquake in A.D. 365 did in fact devastate Kourion. Let’s keep this and continue eliminating choices.


Why do we not need a limit for specifying a particular year for pre-365 as in your explanation for (D)


Quote:
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.

Quote:
Choice (D) would neither strengthen nor weaken the argument, which places the destruction of Kourion in A.D. 365. If these small statues were carved between 300 and 365, choice (D) would strengthen the argument. If these small statues were carved between 365 and 400, choice (D) would weaken the argument. Since we don’t know when exactly the statues were carved, we’ll eliminate choice (D).

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Re: QOTD: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 16:41
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adkikani wrote:
GMATNinja

Quote:
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.

Quote:
Choice (B) presents exactly the kind of evidence we need to back the archaeologists. If they found pre-365 coinage in the debris but couldn’t find a single coin created after 365, then we’d be more inclined to believe that the earthquake in A.D. 365 did in fact devastate Kourion. Let’s keep this and continue eliminating choices.


Why do we not need a limit for specifying a particular year for pre-365 as in your explanation for (D)


Quote:
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.

Quote:
Choice (D) would neither strengthen nor weaken the argument, which places the destruction of Kourion in A.D. 365. If these small statues were carved between 300 and 365, choice (D) would strengthen the argument. If these small statues were carved between 365 and 400, choice (D) would weaken the argument. Since we don’t know when exactly the statues were carved, we’ll eliminate choice (D).

Choice (B) specifically differentiates between coins minted BEFORE AD 365 and AFTER AD 365. We don't care about the exact year, as long as we know whether we are talking about before 365 or after 365.

With (D), on the other hand, we don't know if they are referring to pre- or post-AD 365.

I hope that helps!
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Re: QOTD: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the &nbs [#permalink] 03 May 2018, 16:41
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