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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2015, 19:12
marine wrote:
1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


Christopher has come to personify 2 things. Hence the Subject & Verb must be plural.

A. Has a singular verb "Has" .. eliminate
B. has a missing verb in the second part of the sentence ... eliminate
C. Meaning is wrong... eliminate
D. Again, the meaning is wrong.... eliminate
E. Subject - Verb is correct. Meaning is correct. Hence correct
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2015, 23:02
E is the right answer as the subject us compound : "the devastation and enslavement" so have is required

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2015, 01:58
marine wrote:
1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


Is the word "peoples" written with "s" in some cases? :o
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2015, 09:21
egmat wrote:
Hi,

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence here to get to the correct answer. The sentence says that for many historians, Columbus personifies devastation and enslavement in the name of progress because devastation and enslavement have destroyed native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

Per the meaning, we know that “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” have led to destruction of native peoples. However, “that” in this sentence refers to the immediate preceding noun “progress” because it is followed by singular verb. This modification now says that “progress” has destroyed native peoples. This certainly is not the logical meaning. Hence, we need plural verb “have” that will agree in number with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” and thus will convey the logical intended meaning.

POE:

A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated: Incorrect.
1. This option now says that native peoples used devastation and enslavement to destroy. This is certainly not the intended meaning.
2. Also this choice is awkwardly written.

C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated: Incorrect.
1. Use of “devastating” and “enslaving” is not appropriate. When a sentence requires the usage of a noun form, then we must use the real noun form of that word and not the verb-ing gerund form. Here “devastation and enslavement” are any day better than “devastating and enslaving”.
2. Since “that” is referring to people, it should be “who”.

D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated: Incorrect.
1. Same noun expression error as in choice C.
2. “which” cannot refer to “people”.
3. The choice says that native peoples of the Western Hemisphere are still decimated. This is not the intended meaning. This choice has verb-tense error.

E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Correct. Singular “has” has been converted to plural “have” to rectify the error of the original sentence. Also notice that “the” is understood before “enslavement”. We have ellipsis at paly here.

PS: Choice C has been wrongly worded in the original post.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


in option E if we consider devastation and enslavement plural , then, 'the' should be placed before enslavement also. Am i correct?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2016, 04:46
.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere :- D & E are compound verbs and hence needs to have a plural verb "has" here is wrong
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated :- This is a fragment without verb you need were before devastated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated. :- How can you personify devastating, you cant personify an adjective, personify itself is an adjective hence needs a noun to modify
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated. :- same as C
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere. :- this is okay the noun form of the word and have
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2016, 10:55
1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


-Unfold from End to Start-

The verb "has" implies that the subject should be singular, which in this case is "that", which further refers to Progress. So, there is a meaning issue - Progress cant decimate X. So rule out "A"
If the Verb is "have" , then that should refer to the compound subject " the devastation and enslavement" and thus correctly conveys the intended meaning .
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2016, 06:15
Could someone please post other cases in which there are deviations from the touch rule?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2016, 07:29
gguntovitch wrote:
marine wrote:
1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.



I had this question in my practice test, the right answer is "E".
I missed this one. The trick is that "devastation and enslavement...have decimated", while "A" fails to use the verb in the plural.

what's the problem in option B?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2016, 12:11
Strange! Another source that complies the SC GMAT Prep questions says that answer to this particular question is A. I had picked E when I attempted this question there and got it wrong..
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2016, 02:40
Between A and E. The rest of the sentences can be easily knocked off

Compound Subject - Devastation and Enslavement in the name of progress have decimated the people.
Hence we have to use have rather than has.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2016, 00:19
AkamaiBrah wrote:
ndidi204 wrote:
A is the best.


E has a subject-verb agreement problem.
"the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have .."

Progress here in singular and should have the singular verb "has" as shown in A.


NO. The "progress" did not do the decimating, the "devastion and enslavement" did.

Here is my 2-cents for whatever it is worth.

A. Wrong specifically because of subject-verb agreement. Also, I don't like the omission of the article "the" when refering to the "devastation..". IMO, Columbus personifies a particular period of incidents of devastation, not devastation and enslavement in general.

B. Wrong because it implies that the native people did the devastating.

C. Wordy and awkward. Also, IMO, the use of the gerund connotes that the devastation is ongoing or recent.

D. Same reason as C.

E. IMO, this is the best choice. First, it has good s-v agreement. (the Bread and butter argument is not relevant because item that are considered to be one entity are treated as singular ("bread and butter IS preferable to bacon and eggs for some dieters, though the latter IS surely more popular", "ham and eggs WAS his choice for breakfast", "black and white IS the favorite color scheme of Soho yuppies". This does NOT apply to "devastation and enslavement", e.g., "the devastion and enslavement were widespread" BTW, while "bread and butter is my breakfast" sounds awkward, "bread and butter are my breakfast" sounds worse. Of course, please take this with a grain of salt as my bread and butter IS not SC. 8-)

Finally, since Columbus personifies a particular devastion and enslavement, I think the use of the definite article "the" is appropriate if not mandatory here.


doesn't thatrefer to the closest noun? in this example i think that refers to the progress
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2016, 18:37
The correct answer in the lies in making the correct inference of the sentence or more precisely understanding the meaning of the sentence.

In the given statement the author is saying that Cristopher coloumbus as a person has become a symbol of devastation and enslavement. And this activity or this brutal charateristics of the CC has lead to the decimation of the natives.

E brings out the meaning of the statement correctly along with fulfilling other grammatical nuances.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2016, 22:28
between A and E

Has vs Have

I thought "progress" is being referred and marked A as Progress is singular.
How will i know to what is this has or have are referring to ? "devastation and enslavement" or "progress" ? Experts pleas explain
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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deepthit wrote:
I thought "progress" is being referred and marked A as Progress is singular.
How will i know to what is this has or have are referring to ? "devastation and enslavement" or "progress" ? Experts pleas explain

Hi deepthit, this is because from a logic (intended meaning) perspective, clearly devastation and enslavement (and not progress) have decimated the native peoples.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the usage of that, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2016, 01:12
Marcab wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

MODERATORS: Please note that since the question was originally posted in 2004, no correct answer has been provided yet. This post is just to ensure that I, in addition to all other members of the club, get the correct answer.


Please correct the flaws in B) and C)
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2016, 06:55
egmat wrote:
Hi,

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence here to get to the correct answer. The sentence says that for many historians, Columbus personifies devastation and enslavement in the name of progress because devastation and enslavement have destroyed native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

Per the meaning, we know that “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” have led to destruction of native peoples. However, “that” in this sentence refers to the immediate preceding noun “progress” because it is followed by singular verb. This modification now says that “progress” has destroyed native peoples. This certainly is not the logical meaning. Hence, we need plural verb “have” that will agree in number with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” and thus will convey the logical intended meaning.

POE:

A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated: Incorrect.
1. This option now says that native peoples used devastation and enslavement to destroy. This is certainly not the intended meaning.
2. Also this choice is awkwardly written.

C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated: Incorrect.
1. Use of “devastating” and “enslaving” is not appropriate. When a sentence requires the usage of a noun form, then we must use the real noun form of that word and not the verb-ing gerund form. Here “devastation and enslavement” are any day better than “devastating and enslaving”.
2. Since “that” is referring to people, it should be “who”.

D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated: Incorrect.
1. Same noun expression error as in choice C.
2. “which” cannot refer to “people”.
3. The choice says that native peoples of the Western Hemisphere are still decimated. This is not the intended meaning. This choice has verb-tense error.

E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Correct. Singular “has” has been converted to plural “have” to rectify the error of the original sentence. Also notice that “the” is understood before “enslavement”. We have ellipsis at paly here.

PS: Choice C has been wrongly worded in the original post.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha





Dear Sadhana ..
I have a small concern here . In option E you are saying that "that" refer to devastation and enslavement (plural) .
But in general , that refers to immediate preceding noun "progress" right ???
I am confused how that can refer to devastation and enslavement here in this sentence ... :(

Thanks in advance
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2016, 00:28
A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2017, 12:47
My concern is that an OA is not posted! :)
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2017, 22:40
karnaidu wrote:

Dear Sadhana ..
I have a small concern here . In option E you are saying that "that" refer to devastation and enslavement (plural) .
But in general , that refers to immediate preceding noun "progress" right ???
I am confused how that can refer to devastation and enslavement here in this sentence ... :(

Thanks in advance


X of Y that has/have - "that" can refer both to X or Y. When "that" refer to X, it refer to whole "X of Y" phrase because "of Y" is a modifier in the noun phrase "X of Y" with X being the head noun. At the same time, it can also refer to only "Y". The distinction is made on the surrounding context and on grammar usage.
Once, we narrowed down to A and E, we can see the "has/have" split - so, we can make use of logic to see what "that" needs to modify.

Another OG problem, where "which" does not modify the nearest preceding noun : https://gmatclub.com/forum/emily-dickin ... 10142.html. "which were" is the key here !!

Hope this helps !!
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 21:29

!
Please note that this question is from 2004 and is a slightly different version of the question included in the EP1.
The updated question can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-rev ... 60640.html

This discussion is currently locked.

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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2017, 21:29

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