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In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing

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In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing  [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2018, 11:44
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In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing deterioration of the nerve cells in the brain after the stroke also exhibited the highest levels of the protein glutamate in their blood. Glutamate, which functions within nerve cells as a neurotransmitter, can kill surrounding nerve cells if it leaks from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells. Thus glutamate leaking from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is a cause of long-term brain damage resulting from strokes.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Any neurotransmitter that leaks from a damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cell will damage surrounding nerve cells.
(B) Stroke patients exhibit a wide variety of abnormal chemical levels in their blood.
(C) Glutamate is the only neurotransmitter that leaks from oxygen-starved or physically damaged nerve cells.
(D) Leakage from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is the only possible source of glutamate in the blood.
(E) Nerve cells can suffer enough damage to leak glutamate without being destroyed themselves.

Source: LSAT

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Re: In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 22:52
Akela wrote:
In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing deterioration of the nerve cells in the brain after the stroke also exhibited the highest levels of the protein glutamate in their blood. Glutamate, which functions within nerve cells as a neurotransmitter, can kill surrounding nerve cells if it leaks from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells. Thus glutamate leaking from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is a cause of long-term brain damage resulting from strokes.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

Source: LSAT


When I started to read the passage I thought, if it is a weakening question I will look for another reason of showing glutamate in blood.
As it turned, for strengthing question the same.

(A) Any neurotransmitter that leaks from a damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cell will damage surrounding nerve cells.
No word about glutamate. Out.
(B) Stroke patients exhibit a wide variety of abnormal chemical levels in their blood.
Irrelevant. Out.
(C) Glutamate is the only neurotransmitter that leaks from oxygen-starved or physically damaged nerve cells.
Ok. It is additional info, but it does not give anyhing to the last sentence of this passage. Does not strenghten. Out
(D) Leakage from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is the only possible source of glutamate in the blood.
Correct.
Thus glutamate leaking from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is a cause of long-term brain damage resulting from strokes. - this was a conclusion from the fist 2 sentences of the passage.
Option D says us that it was leakage from damaged or oxygen-starved cells ---> got glutamate in blood ---> chain ---> killing surrounding cells ---> long-term brain damage
(E) Nerve cells can suffer enough damage to leak glutamate without being destroyed themselves.
Gives us nothing
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In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited cont  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 21:06
In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing deterioration of the nerve cells in the brain after the stroke also exhibited the highest levels of the protein glutamate in their blood. Glutamate, which functions within nerve cells as a neurotransmitter, can kill surrounding nerve cells if it leaks from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells. Thus glutamate leaking from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is a cause of long­ term brain damage resulting from strokes.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Any neurotransmitter that leaks from a damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cell will damage surrounding nerve cells.

(B) Stroke patients exhibit a wide variety of abnormal chemical levels in their blood.

(C) Glutamate is the only neurotransmitter that leaks from oxygen-starved or physically damaged nerve cells.

(D) Leakage from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is the only possible source of glutamate in the blood.

(E) Nerve cells can suffer enough damage to leak glutamate without being destroyed themselves.

LSAT
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In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited cont  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 21:09
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CONCLUSION: The leakage of glutamate from nerve cells is a cause of long term brain damage from strokes.

REASONING: Glutamate can harm nerve cells if it leaks.

ANALYSIS: This is a complicated question. There are at least two gaps in the argument.

The author hasn’t shown that elevated glutamate after a stroke comes from leakages in the brain. The author only said glutamate damages nerve cells when it leaks. If glutamate is elevated for other reasons (e.g. diet) it might be harmless.
The author hasn’t shown that strokes lead to glutamate leakage. It’s possible a third factor causes both glutamate leakage and strokes.
The right answer patched over the first weakness: it shows that elevated glutamate comes from leakages.

___________

A. It doesn’t matter what other neurotransmitters do. The argument is only talking about glutamate, and we already know that glutamate can damage nerve cells.

B. It doesn’t matter if other chemical levels are unusual after a stroke. The argument could work even if glutamate is the only unusual chemical.

C. It doesn’t matter what other neurotransmitters do. So this answer adds nothing as we already knew glutamate can leak.

D. CORRECT. This doesn’t prove the argument correct, but it strengthens it. It eliminates the possibility that glutamate is elevated due to a different reason, such as a dietary excess of glutamate. This, therefore, shows that excess glutamate can cause damage to the brain because it’s leaking from cells in the brain.

E. This doesn’t matter. Not all nerve cells are going to leak glutamate at once. So glutamate could leak from cells that die, and then that glutamate could harm other living cells.
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Re: In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 02:25
AshutoshB wrote:
In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing deterioration of the nerve cells in the brain after the stroke also exhibited the highest levels of the protein glutamate in their blood. Glutamate, which functions within nerve cells as a neurotransmitter, can kill surrounding nerve cells if it leaks from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells. Thus glutamate leaking from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is a cause of long­ term brain damage resulting from strokes.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Any neurotransmitter that leaks from a damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cell will damage surrounding nerve cells.

(B) Stroke patients exhibit a wide variety of abnormal chemical levels in their blood.

(C) Glutamate is the only neurotransmitter that leaks from oxygen-starved or physically damaged nerve cells.

(D) Leakage from damaged or oxygen-starved nerve cells is the only possible source of glutamate in the blood.

(E) Nerve cells can suffer enough damage to leak glutamate without being destroyed themselves.

LSAT


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Re: In a recent study of stroke patients, those who exhibited continuing &nbs [#permalink] 02 Sep 2018, 02:25
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