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In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands

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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 19:08
AjiteshArun did a nice job clearing up the issues on questions #4 and #6, but it looks like there's plenty of pain on question #8. So here's that one again:

Quote:
In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which of the following?

(A) Explaining adaptations that enable the terrestrial snake to cope with the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system
(B) Comparing the circulatory system of the sea snake with that of the terrestrial snake
(C) Explaining why the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake is different from that of the sea snake
(D) Pointing out features of the terrestrial snake's cardiovascular system that make it superior to that of the sea snake
(E) Explaining how the sea snake is able to neutralize the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system

Conquistador22 wrote:
For this question, I got confused between A & C. I choose E but OA is A.

Official Guide says " The passage is more concerned with how the system of two snakes are different, rather than why, in order to identify how terrestrial snakes have adapted to gravity's influence.

But passage has below line "That many terrestrial snakes in similar spatial orientations do not experience this kind of circulatory failure suggests that certain adaptations enable them to regulate blood pressure more effectively in those orientations."

It does talk about "why"

Can some expert throw some light on this evolutionary process :!:
PS. I mean expert in RC and not expert in evolutionary process :lol: . Just kidding everyone is welcome to share their views

bpdulog wrote:
I was also down to A & C and chose C over A. I'm still not sure why C is wrong?

gmatretest wrote:
I do not understand the rationale behind the answer for Q8 (primary concern, General question).

In my opinion, both A and B are considered partial. A fails to mention sea snakes (which constitutes the whole 2nd paragraph) while B does not state gravity.
Why does OG prefer A than B, considering both are equally flawed?

As with all "primarily concerned" questions, we should establish the overall purpose of the passage. This is different from seeking an answer choice that seems to add up individual pieces of the passage. So why did the author write this thing?

  • The author wrote paragraph 1 to introduce the adaptations that terrestrial snakes have made in response to the demands of gravity.
  • The author wrote paragraph 2 to explain how gravity on land leads to circulatory failure, by comparing the circulation and blood pressure of terrestrial snakes to sea snakes
  • The author wrote paragraph 3 to illustrate the specific circulation-aiding adaptations of terrestrial snakes, by describing different examples of these adaptations.

When we follow the author's purpose from paragraph to paragraph, we see that the author wrote this passage to explain how the adaptations of terrestrial snakes help those snakes circulate blood -- and consequently, survive -- in terrestrial environments.

Remember that in these question types, wrong answer choices will often distract us by stating something that's probably true, and maybe very important to the passage. That's not the same thing as stating why the author wrote the passage as a whole.

Quote:
(A) Explaining adaptations that enable the terrestrial snake to cope with the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system

This looks good! It fits our understanding of the author's purpose (to explain adaptations of terrestrial snakes), and doesn't add any erroneous details regarding what that explanation says. Let's keep (A) around and review our other choices.

Quote:
(B) Comparing the circulatory system of the sea snake with that of the terrestrial snake

This is more like a description of what the author is doing in paragraph 2 (and doesn't really get at the purpose of that paragraph, either). Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Explaining why the circulatory system of the terrestrial snake is different from that of the sea snake

This is misleading. Sure, the author explains why the circulatory system differs (gravity works differently in water than on land). But when the author sat down and decided that it was necessary to write this passage, was she thinking, "I have to tell everyone why the circulatory systems of these two snakes are different"?

Not exactly. Choice (C) makes it seem like the author's main purpose is the comparison of two classes of snake. In fact, the author is primarily concerned with explaining how the terrestrial snake adapts to terrestrial gravity. The sea snake only appears as an example to show the particular demands of terrestrial gravity, and how terrestrial adaptations help terrestrial snakes meet those demands. That's why we eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) Pointing out features of the terrestrial snake's cardiovascular system that make it superior to that of the sea snake

The author isn't making a judgment on which snake's cardiovascular system is better or worse than the other. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Explaining how the sea snake is able to neutralize the effects of gravitational pressure on its circulatory system

This is totally off-track. The author's focus is the terrestrial snake, and how the terrestrial snake neutralizes these effects in terrestrial environments. Eliminate (E).

This is why (A) remains the best answer. We do see something that seems true in every other answer choice, but we can eliminate choices (B), (C), (D), and (E) because none of them express the overall purpose of the passage.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 22:10
Took 14 mins, but got all correct.
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2018, 20:02
I love OG problems, but they seem not as difficult as what I encountered at real GMAT test.
A lot of Manhattan or Veritas prep RCs are much more complicate and tricky than OG's, and seem more close to real GMAT problems, why is that?
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2018, 22:10
727 wrote:
I love OG problems, but they seem not as difficult as what I encountered at real GMAT test.
A lot of Manhattan or Veritas prep RCs are much more complicate and tricky than OG's, and seem more close to real GMAT problems, why is that?
This particular thread might not be the best place to ask that question :)

The OGs are not meant only for test takers who can get (say) 90%+ scores. They therefore have questions across difficulty levels. Also, they are not adaptive, whereas the GMAT is.
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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2019, 03:29
jack0997 wrote:
#25 OG or this post #8.

In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with
doing which of the following?

I eliminated A because it states 'adaptations,' plural, whereas only one adaptation is discussed, i.e, placement of heart closer to the head. Pl. help.


Answer choice analysis is important.
However, more than that, passage understanding to an extent in which one can retain the gist without re-reading the article is SUPREME and highly lucrative.

The passage actually details 2 adaptations:
    1) One such adaptation is the closer proximity of the terrestrial snake's heart to its head, which helps to ensure circulation to the brain, regardless of the snake's orientation in space. The heart of sea snakes can be located near the middle of the body, a position that minimizes the work entailed in circulating blood to both extremities. In arboreal snakes, however, which dwell in trees and often assume a vertical posture, the average distance from the heart to the head can be as little as 15 percent of overall body length.
    2) Such a location requires that blood circulated to the tail of the snake travel a greater distance back to the heart, a problem solved by another adaptation. When climbing, arboreal snakes often pause momentarily to wiggle their bodies, causing waves of muscle contraction that advance from the lower torso to the head. By compressing the veins and forcing blood forward, these contractions apparently improve the flow of venous blood returning to the heart.

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Re: In terrestrial environments, gravity places special demands   [#permalink] 21 Mar 2019, 03:29

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