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# In the years since the city of London imposed strict

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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2010, 21:43
Why is E needed, can someone explain?

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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 03:18
In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

Assumptions:
1) The increase in the number of bird species is a direct result of application of strict air-pollution regulations. ==> no option
2) The increase in number of bird species actually reflects an increase. ==> option E
3) The increase in number of bird species is desirable and that is why the regualtion should be imposed in other cities as well. ==> option D
4) The regulation imposed in London should also be imposed in other major cities because we are assuming that they have similar air pollution problems. ==> option C

Left with A and B... A can still be clubbed with C but can't really figure out how can we assume B...
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 05:55
IMO A.

Though EXCEPT adds twist to the question....
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2010, 01:05
mainhoon wrote:
In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:
(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry. "Entirely" is quite extreme,,I think this is the correct answer.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.If this is not true, then how can we see dramatic change after imposing regulations?.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.Same plan is to be introduced in other cities, so this is an assumption.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.if this is not assumed then why are we discussing all this?
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.This is an assumption as the author states that the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased. What if the number of species are same?

Entirely is quite extreme. What if the imposing regulation on local industry is the only way to reduce pollution? Other sources could be unavoidable.
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2010, 03:30
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In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:

(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2010, 03:40
mundasingh123 wrote:
In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:
(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA Check after a few replies or someone can PM me

I am between A and E.
If we negate A, then even if the local industry is reponsible only for a apart of the air pollution problems , the argument still suffices.
If we negate E, then if an increase in the number of sightings does not mean an increase in the number of species, then the argument suffices because this could mean that the birds come more frequently out.The birds feel more comfortable flying in the cleaner air
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2011, 14:14
IMO A

Negate A :

Air Pollution is not are NOT ENTIRELY caused by Local industry
--> Air Pollution is PARTIALLY caused by Local industry

So, # of bird species seen could be increased by reducing Air Pollution PARTIALLY by Regulations on Local Industries.

this means by neagting this option, still we could reach the Conclusion,

So we dont need to Assume this.

Hope this helps
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2011, 18:46
A.
Nowhere is argument it is mentioned that after regulating on local industry, London became almost completely air pollution free or almost pollution free air is required for increase in the number of bird species. So assumption in option A is not required.
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2011, 21:12
100% A. almost entirely is wrong. A is extreme.
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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20 May 2011, 04:07
amod243 wrote:
IMO A
Negate A :
Air Pollution is not are NOT ENTIRELY caused by Local industry
--> Air Pollution is PARTIALLY caused by Local industry
So, # of bird species seen could be increased by reducing Air Pollution PARTIALLY by Regulations on Local Industries.
this means by neagting this option, still we could reach the Conclusion,
So we dont need to Assume this.
Hope this helps

The stimulus in the first statement clearly says that "since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry". Doesnt this means that Air Pollution came into control due to rules and regulations on "local industry" specifically?
And this is exactly what A says about.

If you say that "--> Air Pollution is PARTIALLY caused by Local industry", then wouldnt it will negate the first statment of the stimulus and destroy the conclusion?
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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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20 May 2011, 05:02
Its A here.Almost entirely is the word making the choice extreme.
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In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 06:44
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In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:
(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.========
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.
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Re: CR......In the years since the city of London imposed [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 06:45
All of them look like assumptions to me...
The only possible answer i can think of is D .

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Re: CR......In the years since the city of London imposed [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 11:32
i think it's D ...OA plz..with explanation
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Re: CR......In the years since the city of London imposed [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 17:53
In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:
(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.========
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.

I went for E.
Conclusion: Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
the conclusion clearly implies that it's desirable to have increase in bird in and around the city. - so I rejected D
A cannot be the answer because if air pollution is not a problem then conclusion wouldn't have been recommended for other cities.

I felt E is the answer because the argument talks about # of bird species seen - doesn't matter whether actual # of species has increased or not; what argument is concerned about is # of bird species seen
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Re: CR......In the years since the city of London imposed [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 19:45
I think the answer is D. What is the answer given in the source where you got this question? Please share.
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Re: CR......In the years since the city of London imposed [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2012, 23:38
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OA IS A....

Explanation still required...
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Re: CR......In the years since the city of London imposed [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2012, 08:45
+1 A

My explanations are the following:

shikhar wrote:
(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry. - CORRECT: The argument only focuses on the problem of the number of birds. We cannot assume that there are not other air-pollution problems generated by other causes such as cars. (B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air. - The author assumes that there is a causal relationship between the regulations and the quality of air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London. - The author must assume that the conditions in other cities are similar to those in London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.- The author must assume that the other cities also want a greater number of bird species.
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area. - I agree that this could also be the answer. But A seems better.

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Re: In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2012, 13:17
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Conclusion : Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.
Premise : the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically

Now Question asks for an option which is no where related to above as an assumption. SO lets drill down each option and strike it out.

(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
-- This passage is concerned with local industry and this can be one probable assumption which fills the gap between premise and COnclusion. So this option is out .....Striked

(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
---- Lets keep it aside for time being.

(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
--- London regulation outcome has triggered the conclusion. so its must as assumption. so Striked
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.
---- This is the one result of regulation that triggered the implementation in other cities ....Striked
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.
---- This acts as an assumption. If when negated i.e.The increased sightings of bird species in and around London does not reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area then there won't be any relevance between the premise and conclusion which will lead to fall of conclusion. So its Striked off

Now Option B is remaining ..." Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air " : This is the correct answer which doesn't act as any assumption for above conclusion to be drawn. Air quality doesn't quantify in the passage conclusion. Negating this i.e. Air-pollution regulations on industry does not have a significant impact on the quality of the air " doesn't affect the premise as the reason can be different for increase in species number and thus doesn't contradict the conclusion too. B doesn't affect the conclusion what so ever

OA is B
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In the years since the city of London imposed strict [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 01:12
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In the years since the city of London imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry, the number of bird species seen in and around London has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other major cities.

Each of the following is an assumption made in the argument above EXCEPT:

(A) In most major cities, air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry.
(B) Air-pollution regulations on industry have a significant impact on the quality of the air.
(C) The air-pollution problems of other major cities are basically similar to those once suffered by London.
(D) An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.
(E) The increased sightings of bird species in and around London reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area.

I choose E but it's wrong. can S.o help me explain why not E.
In the years since the city of London imposed strict   [#permalink] 21 Oct 2012, 01:12

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