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# Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States

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Intern
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31 May 2004, 06:59
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35% (medium)

Question Stats:

60% (01:59) correct 40% (01:04) wrong based on 1012 sessions

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Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build a modern industrial system.

(A) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build
(B) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War and used it to help in building
(C) Japan used the huge sums of capital it received from the United States after the Second World War to help build
(D) Japan's huge sums of capital received from the United States after the Second World War were used to help it in building
(E) Receiving huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, Japan used it to help build

Please explain how you eliminated "the second best" option.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by reto on 13 Jul 2015, 07:50, edited 2 times in total.
OA not provided / typo
If you have any questions
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 14:36
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TiredOfStudying wrote:
Anyone? I also go for C. Isn't "Huge sums of capital" plural? therefore you can't really say "used it"

Hi TiredOfStudying (hilarious name, btw). Yes the whole question here is the pronoun "it". The antecedent of "it" is ambiguous as it could be the money, Japan or the US. Answer choices A, B, D and E all have the confusing pronoun while C succinctly sums up the sentence nicely.

With pronouns, if you can find an answer choice that eliminates ambiguity by removing the pronoun entirely, it's likely your best bet.

Hope this helps!
-Ron
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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31 May 2004, 12:13
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Hi there Serge, my fellow Ukrainian! Where are you from?

I believe C is the answer.

Cheers
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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31 May 2004, 10:19
For this question ,i would go for E

while choosing this question, i also hesitated on A but i think E is better.

i think ,using it to help build a modern industrial system in A is ambiguous because i don't know for sure "who use". It might be the united state or JApan.

Therefore E is good for me
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2004, 01:00
Hi. my shot .. the best choice is B.

I shall explain when this is correct (which I hope is).

Regards
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Last edited by carsen on 01 Jun 2004, 02:11, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2004, 01:38
carsen wrote:
Hi. my shot .. the best choice is B.

I shall explain when this is correct (which I heopfully is).

Regards

"Help in building" sounds a little awkward especially when there is the better choice "help build." It would be viable if it were "in the building of..." Just my two cents
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2004, 02:57
Do you think 'huge sums of money' plural or singular?

Except C, ABDE use huge sums of money with reference to 'it', whereas in C it clearly refers to Japan and C also avoids the use of pronoun 'it' that refers to huge sums of money.

IMHO, C is concise and clear....but who knows... : )

Last edited by aonie on 01 Jun 2004, 05:12, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2004, 04:18
Awkward SC.

Confused between B and C. Will go for (C) (Though it is awkward choice as well, but i guess best among the give.)
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2004, 06:05
aonie wrote:
Do you think 'huge sums of money' plural or singular?

Except C, ABDE use huge sums of money with reference to 'it', whereas in C it clearly refers to Japan and C also avoids the use of pronoun 'it' that refers to huge sums of money.

IMHO, C is concise and clear....but who knows... : )

Thanks, your explanation helped. I completely missed "sums..it".

OA is C.
(AKA Lesser Evil

Serge from Kiev
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 10:30
Anyone? I also go for C. Isn't "Huge sums of capital" plural? therefore you can't really say "used it"
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2013, 01:54
Serge wrote:
Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build a modern industrial system.

(A) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build
(B) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War and used it to help in building
(C) Japan used the huge sums of capital it received from the United States after the Second World War to help build
(D) Japanâ€™s huge sums of capital received from the United States after the Second World War were used to help it in building
(E) Receiving huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, Japan used it to help build

Please explain how you eliminated "the second best" option.

In options A,B,D,E reference of "it" is ambiguous.
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 13:44
I think that "ambiguous" cant explain how other choices than C are incorrect.

In all choices except in C, 'it' is used incorrectly. 'it' cannot refers to 'capital' since it is the object of preposition 'of' and pronouns can refer to nouns or other pronouns. The other noun that 'it' logically can refer to is 'sums' but it is plural and needs ''them'' instead.

In choice D we have the agent of action, Japan, so the passive voice is unjustified here.
So just choice C is correct.

Hope my explanation clears up some ambiguities.
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2014, 00:13
its B as C is changing the meaning
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2014, 04:21
Tested concepts: Pronoun ambiguity and Modifiers

In all the choices other than "C", "it" can refer to either huge sums of capital or the United States. The only answer choice that is unambiguous is "C"
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2014, 01:19
Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build a modern industrial system.

(A) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build (Here it belongs to 'sums'-plural -wrong )
(B) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War and used it to help in building (Same as A)
(C) Japan used the huge sums of capital it received from the United States after the Second World War to help build (Correct)
(D) Japanâ€™s huge sums of capital received from the United States after the Second World War were used to help it in building
(E) Receiving huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, Japan used it to help build
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2014, 11:53
Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build a modern industrial system.

Japan (S) + received (V) + sums of capital (O)
Pronoun it refers to Japan.

(A) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, using it to help build – pronoun error ( sums cannot be it)
(B) Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War and used it to help in building – pronoun error ( sums cannot be it)
Correct (C) Japan used the huge sums of capital it received from the United States after the Second World War to help build.
(D) Japanâ€™s huge sums of capital received from the United States after the Second World War were used to help it in building - it does not have any ANTECEDENT.
(E) Receiving huge sums of capital from the United States after the Second World War, Japan used it to help build – pronoun error
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2014, 19:17
Moreover Preposition + Noun + Verbing is not a preferred construction on GMAT.

ob wrote:
carsen wrote:
Hi. my shot .. the best choice is B.

I shall explain when this is correct (which I heopfully is).

Regards

"Help in building" sounds a little awkward especially when there is the better choice "help build." It would be viable if it were "in the building of..." Just my two cents

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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2014, 19:19
It has pronoun ambiguity error. It is referring to United Stated, making the sentence logically wrong.
chung wrote:
For this question ,i would go for E

while choosing this question, i also hesitated on A but i think E is better.

i think ,using it to help build a modern industrial system in A is ambiguous because i don't know for sure "who use". It might be the united state or JApan.

Therefore E is good for me

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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2016, 14:55
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Re: Japan received huge sums of capital from the United States   [#permalink] 22 Jul 2016, 14:55
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