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# Many major scientific discoveries of the past were

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Manager
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Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2017, 04:21
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85% (hard)

Question Stats:

57% (02:26) correct 43% (02:42) wrong based on 734 sessions

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Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research. Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research.

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific research that those investigators would personally prefer.

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2017, 04:28
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PREMISE :- Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research.

Conclusion:- Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research.

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific research that those investigators would personally prefer.

out of scope

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity
too vague statement
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2017, 07:48
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Premise 1: In the past, many discoveries came from serendipity (fortune, accident)
Premise 2: However, now, research is so costly -> depend (heavily) on grants
Premise 3: Such grants require clear outcome (findings) of research -> investigator ignore anything does not directly bear on funded research

Conclusion: serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery (findings)

Reasoning the argument: There is a gap between discovery (findings) and funded research --> It is possible that some findings (discovery) happen accidentally (not purposely sought) as the result of doing the research.

Negating A: Not only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research -> it means some findings are not purposely sought (accidentally) can direct bear on that research -> conclusion collapses

Hence, A is the correct answer.
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2017, 12:58
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Aketa wrote:
hello experts?

could you please explain why B is wrong?

It seems that you have mistaken this question for an inference type question.

An assumption is a link between the premise and the conclusion.

I. Premise: such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research
II. Intermediate conclusion (i.e. conclusion of above premise and premise for final conclusion below): investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research.
III. Final conclusion: serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Option B does not link any of the premise-conclusion link ( i.e I to II or II to III). Hence it cannot be an assumption. It does not matter whether in past few researches, the investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research. Even if they didn't neither of the two links are affected.
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2017, 09:24
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Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research. Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research.

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific research that those investigators would personally prefer.

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity

The argument says that unline earlier days investors now only funds the reaserch which is beneficial to them and the scientist now has to provide assurity that the reaserch would conclude with positive result which would be beneficial to the investors as well.Option A correctly mentions the arguments assumption.
TO test that weather option A is the correct choice we ccan do a negation test that is if we negate the assumption the argument shoud not be valid anymore,
So if we say that investors purposefully do not seek anything ,This would break the argument as the entire argument is based on this idea. threfore option A is the most suitable answer.

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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2017, 11:10
gargisback wrote:
Subject: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were

sayantanc2k wrote:
Aketa wrote:
hello experts?

could you please explain why B is wrong?

It seems that you have mistaken this question for an inference type question.

An assumption is a link between the premise and the conclusion.

I. Premise: such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research
II. Intermediate conclusion (i.e. conclusion of above premise and premise for final conclusion below): investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research.
III. Final conclusion: serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Option B does not link any of the premise-conclusion link ( i.e I to II or II to III). Hence it cannot be an assumption. It does not matter whether in past few researches, the investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research. Even if they didn't neither of the two links are affected.

Why is A a right choice can u help???

Premise 1: Grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research
Premise 2: Investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research.

Conclusion: Serendipity (the occurrence of events by chance in a beneficial way) can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Option A: Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.
Negate option A: Findings that an investigator does NOT purposely seek can directly bear on that investigator's research.

The negation implies that even though the scientists do not intentionally seek certain things, they can still bear on that investigator's research (resulting in a discovery), implying that serendipity may play a role in scientific discovery (even though the scientists might not intend so). Thus negating option A breaks the argument and hence is a required assumption.
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2018, 01:54
Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research. Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research. --Correct.

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research. --Conclusion of the argument is regarding serendipity.

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific research that those investigators would personally prefer. --large funds not grants

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply. --Whether they receive or not doesn't refute the argument that serendipity can play a role in discovery.

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity --Exaggerated choice
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Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2018, 10:34
D is wrong because if you negate the answer choice, the argument can still hold

Argument : today's scientific discoveries are discovered not through luck but planning and focus...Hence luck is no longer essential in finding scientific discoveries

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.

Negating D : Not all folks who apply for grant money, get some \$

If D is accurate, negating D, destroy's the arguement

Now per negated D, if some one who applied for grant money did not get their grant money .... does it proove luck is no longer a factor in finding scientific discoveries ?

Per negated D, if some one who applied for grant money did not get their grant money (let's say one person is the sample size) -- can you proove definitely, luck is not longer important ..

You cant ...

Hence D cannot be correct
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2018, 09:10
Why option C is wrong ?
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2019, 21:52
rs47 wrote:
Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research. Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research.

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific research that those investigators would personally prefer.

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity

Conclusion:
Under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can NO longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Pre-Think:
Both
Serendipity
AND
Investigators IGNORANCE about anything that does not directly bear on the funded research
goes Hand-in-hand.

Answer choice analysis between A and E:
(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.
!A: Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks CANNOT directly bear on that investigator's research.
Meaning - There are OTHER factors as well such as chances/Serendipity that CAN directly bear on that investigator's research.
Negating A shatters the conclusion.

(E) In general, the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity.
More than 50% - Let's say 70% of the scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity.

!E: less than 50% - 30% of the scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity.
!E STILL supports the argument. JUST lesser THAN before.

!E does NOT break the conclusion.
A is the Champ!
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Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2019, 13:51
I'm trying to speed up my CR responses by using Scope to quickly eliminate choices, and then focus on the remaining ones with assumptions analysis.
Here's how I had approached this question:

Many major scientific discoveries of the past were the product of serendipity, the chance discovery of valuable findings that investigators had not purposely sought. Now, however, scientific research tends to be so costly that investigators are heavily dependent on large grants to fund their research. Because such grants require investigators to provide the grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of the proposed research, investigators ignore anything that does not directly bear on the funded research. Therefore, under the prevailing circumstances, serendipity can no longer play a role in scientific discovery.

Scope: Role of Serendipity (lucky findings) in recent research and impact of goal-oriented grant writing on the same.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Only findings that an investigator purposely seeks can directly bear on that investigator's research.
Within Scope - Retain

(B) In the past few scientific investigators attempted to make clear predictions of the outcome of their research.
Out of scope: We're interested in impact on recent research, not past - Eliminate

(C) Dependence on large grants is preventing investigators from conducting the type of scientific research that those investigators would personally prefer.
Out of scope: Not concerned with investigators' personal preferences. - Eliminate

(D) All scientific investigators who provide grant sponsors with clear projections of the outcome of their research receive at least some of the grants for which they apply.
Out of scope: How many receive grants is irrelevant - Eliminate

(E) In general the most valuable scientific discoveries are the product of serendipity
More or less, a reiteration of the first line of premise. - Eliminate

Thus, going just by scope alone we can eliminate most if not all of the statements!
Please do let me know if this approach makes sense in general. Looking forward to your inputs

And of course, kudos if you found it useful.
Thanks!
Re: Many major scientific discoveries of the past were   [#permalink] 05 Aug 2019, 13:51
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