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# On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some

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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
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The term Morphological means "relating to a form or structure of things". Even if we dont know the meaning, the passage states that there are relatively minor morphological differences between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. The word relatively is they key over here. Accordingly, it can be inferred that Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons were more similar as when compared to any other population. From this, it can be concluded that Cro-Magnons would have more morphological difference when compared to modern humans (as relatively C would have less difference with N).

If this is not clear, logically any ancient species would have significant differences when compared to modern humans! This is not hard to conclude! Hence C is eliminated and B is the answer
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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
The text tells us that the two groups lived in different environments ("these two groups of hominids living in different environments")
and that they "they faced the same daily challenges"

So different environments can pose the same daily challenges

So daily challenges for inhabitants are not unique to an environment
ie B is not true

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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]

According to me, the statement in C is not true because they haven't talked about the differences between cro-magnons, neanderthals, and modern humans anywhere.

Pls help.

See the question: "each of the following could be true EXCEPT"

The question requires us to choose the answer that CANNOT be true, ie the answer that is definitely untrue

B is definitely untrue
C may or may not be true

The passage does not tell us that C is true, but neither does it tell us that C is untrue.
For all we know, C could be true

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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
Can someone help with D? Use of similar tools 'required' should be wrong. Right? It is only an indicator and can be amongst many indicators that can be used to draw the same conclusion.
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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
Shreyansh2809 wrote:
Can someone help with D? Use of similar tools 'required' should be wrong. Right? It is only an indicator and can be amongst many indicators that can be used to draw the same conclusion.

An understanding of the question is key to getting the right answer here

In Inference questions, we usually need to choose the answer that can be SHOWN TO BE TRUE on the basis of the passage.

The trap answers in a typical Inference question are those that COULD BE true (but the text does not tell us for certain)

In this question, we need to choose the answer that can be SHOWN TO BE UNTRUE on the basis of information in the text

We will eliminate answer choices that COULD BE TRUE and answer choices that ARE DEFINITELY TRUE

Let's look at D:
-The passage tells us that the two groups used similar tools
- The author thinks that the two groups were members of the same species
So it COULD BE TRUE that the "use of similar tools is required" for the two groups to be considered part of the same species.

Yes, D is rather extreme and hard to believe! But the passage does not contain anything to tell us that D is definitely untrue.

Hope this helped?

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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
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Let us consider the answer options on the basis of the facts given in the passage:

(A) Morphological differences between the members of two populations do not guarantee that the two populations do not belong to the same species. This is true as per the passage since Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons have morphological differences and the passage argues that they should be considered to be of the same species. In the minimum, this "could" be true. Eliminate.

(B) The daily challenges with which an environment confronts its inhabitants are unique to that environment. This is not true. Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons lived in different environments and yet the similar tools suggest that their daily challenges were the same. Correct answer.

(C) There are greater morphological differences between Cro-Magnons and modern humans than there are between Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals. There is nothing in the passage that suggests that this is untrue. Hence, this "could" be true. Eliminate.

(D) Use of similar tools is required if members of two distinct groups of tool-making hominids are to be considered members of the same species. The passage argues same species status for Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons on the basis of similar tools. While it does not state that this is "required", there is nothing to say that not having similar tools can also allow two groups to belong to the same species. Therefore, this "could" be true. Eliminate.

(E) Through much of their coexistence, Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals were geographically isolated from one another. The passage states, "the morphological differences are due merely to their having lived in different environments". This "could" be true "through much of their existence" since nothing in the passage suggests otherwise. Eliminate.

Hope this helps.
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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
C should be the credited answer because the argument says that the tools used by both groups were same. This could imply 2 things

Either they faced the same challenges and hence the tools they used were same or they belonged to the same species; hence, they had same tools and little morphological differences they have is due to different environments.

Basically, the argument goes on to conclude that both groups are same species that is why they have same tools. It rejects the idea that they faced same challenges leading to same tools.

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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
here what does "for only if" indicates?
I think the author is trying to communicate that the two groups could only have the same tools either if they faced the same daily challenges and met them in the same way or if they belong to the same species, since they did not face the same daily challenges, it must be true that the two groups belong to the same species
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Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
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­
Quote:
here what does "for only if" indicates?
I think the author is trying to communicate that the two groups could only have the same tools either if they faced the same daily challenges and met them in the same way or if they belong to the same species, since they did not face the same daily challenges, it must be true that the two groups belong to the same species

Hi @Stanindaw

Happy to discuss.

"only if" indicates a Necessary Condition.

For example:
Statement: Only if we exercise regularly, we stay fit.
Inferences:
1. If we do not exercise regularly, we do not stay fit.
2. If we are fit, we must be exercising regularly.
3. If we exercise regularly, we may or may not stay fit.  (We might be doing something else to offset the benefits of regular exercise.)
4. If we are not fit, we may or may not be exercising regularly. (We might be doing something else to offset the benefits of regular exercise.)

So, "only if they faced the same daily challenges and met them in the same way would they have used such similar tools."
Inference:
1. If they did not face the same daily challenges and did not meet them in the same way, they would not have used similar tools.
2. If they used similar tools, they must have faced the same daily challenges and met them in the same way.

Now, the author is saying that Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons used the same tools, therefore they were members of the same species. Using the same tools proves that they must have faced the same daily challenges and met them in the same way.
So,
1. If they used similar tools, they must have faced the same daily challenges and met them in the same way.
2. If they faced the same challenges and met them in the same way, they were members of the same species.
3. So, if they used the same tools, they were members of the same species.
4. Hence, even though there were minor morphological differences between the two, they were essentially the same species.

Choice B: The daily challenges with which an environment confronts its inhabitants are unique to that environment.
This has to be false, since even though Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons lived in different environments, they faced similar challenges and met them in similar ways using the same tools. Hence, B cannot be true. Clearly, the daily challenges were not unique to those environments, but were shared by those environments.

Choice D: Use of similar tools is required if members of two distinct groups of tool-making hominids are to be considered members of the same species.
We cannot say for sure that this is "required", but it "could" be true. We know having the same tools proves they are the same species. However, we do not know whether not having the same tools proves that they were not the same species. Hence, this statement is a possibility not a certainty.

Hope this helps.
Happy learning!

-Abhishek ­
Re: On the basis of relatively minor morphological differences, some [#permalink]
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