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# Sales of United States manufactured goods to

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Senior Manager
Joined: 13 Aug 2012
Posts: 429
Concentration: Marketing, Finance
GPA: 3.23
Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2013, 07:25
By touch rule, "which" touching 1992 incorrectly modifies the year. Hence, eliminate A, B and C.
"plugging in an amount" explicitly shows which is being modified.

(A) which is 14 percent more than the previous year
(B) which is 14 percent higher than it was the previous year
(C) 14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure

"an amount [that is 14% more than the previous year's figure]" clearly modifies the amount and compares amount in 1992 and of the previous year. In D, "was" is unnecessary and redundant... .

(D) an amount that is 14 percent more than the previous year was

(E) an amount that is 14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure
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Joined: 27 May 2014
Posts: 81
Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2015, 20:58
Can't the which modify the \$167 billion? 167 billion plus preposition 1962 I thought can modify the 167
Intern
Joined: 19 Feb 2017
Posts: 44
Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2018, 08:57
Hi egmat / GMATNinja,

Please explain how is E correct. Don't we need a "that" in front of "largely offsets..." in order to maintain parallelism ?
Intern
Joined: 10 May 2014
Posts: 26
Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2018, 09:14

A and B should be eliminated outright because which modifies 1992 directly (and falsely). C is very obscure in meaning because a modifier is usually placed right next to the thing it modifies. This leaves D and E.

By meaning, D is blatantly wrong because it compares the amount with the previous year.

By meaning (and also after elimination), E is the best choice.

Previously, I also doubted the strict parallelism rule. Yet, I remember reading somewhere about the current type of parallelism in the sentence and it is accepted. I think it depends on how clear the comparison refers to. This may be hard for non-native English speakers because the native speakers may "play by ear" in these types of sentences.

aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat / GMATNinja,

Please explain how is E correct. Don't we need a "that" in front of "largely offsets..." in order to maintain parallelism ?
Intern
Joined: 19 Feb 2017
Posts: 44
Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2018, 22:14
blayel wrote:

A and B should be eliminated outright because which modifies 1992 directly (and falsely). C is very obscure in meaning because a modifier is usually placed right next to the thing it modifies. This leaves D and E.

By meaning, D is blatantly wrong because it compares the amount with the previous year.

By meaning (and also after elimination), E is the best choice.

Previously, I also doubted the strict parallelism rule. Yet, I remember reading somewhere about the current type of parallelism in the sentence and it is accepted. I think it depends on how clear the comparison refers to. This may be hard for non-native English speakers because the native speakers may "play by ear" in these types of sentences.

aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat / GMATNinja,

Please explain how is E correct. Don't we need a "that" in front of "largely offsets..." in order to maintain parallelism ?

Hi Blayel,

I really appreciate your response, but I would like to disagree with your analysis. Here is my analysis:

A: Here, "which" does not modify 1992 but rather it correctly modifies "\$167 billion". I understand that ", which" directly modifies the noun before the comma but there are exceptions. Here "in 1992" modifies "167 billion" and thus ",which" modifies "\$167 billion". The reason this option should be eliminated is there is a comparison error. This option compares the increase to "previous year".

A similar example is " I killed a snake with scales, which was entering the garden". This is a correct sentence. Logic precedes grammar.

B: This option should be eliminated because the option uses "it" in the phrase "higher than it was the previous year". The other side of the comparison uses "sales" which is plural

C: Hold. "14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure" correctly modifies "\$167 billion in 1992". However, I also understand that in this case "Sales of United States manufactured goods to non industrialized countries" becomes the source of the list and that "rose to \$167 billion in 1992" and "largely offsets weak demand from Europe and Japan." are the elements in the list, which are not parallel on grounds of verb tense.

D: Same as B. Comparison error

E: Looks correct but then I noticed that "that" was missing before "largely offsets...". "That" is needed here to maintain parallelism. Hence eliminated.

egmat / GMATNinja,

Kindly let me know if my analysis approach is correct though I marked C, which is wrong. Please let me know where am I going wrong. Especially, please explain how is E correct.
Intern
Joined: 19 Feb 2017
Posts: 44
Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2018, 22:25
aviejay wrote:
blayel wrote:

A and B should be eliminated outright because which modifies 1992 directly (and falsely). C is very obscure in meaning because a modifier is usually placed right next to the thing it modifies. This leaves D and E.

By meaning, D is blatantly wrong because it compares the amount with the previous year.

By meaning (and also after elimination), E is the best choice.

Previously, I also doubted the strict parallelism rule. Yet, I remember reading somewhere about the current type of parallelism in the sentence and it is accepted. I think it depends on how clear the comparison refers to. This may be hard for non-native English speakers because the native speakers may "play by ear" in these types of sentences.

aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat / GMATNinja,

Please explain how is E correct. Don't we need a "that" in front of "largely offsets..." in order to maintain parallelism ?

Hi Blayel,

I really appreciate your response, but I would like to disagree with your analysis. Here is my analysis:

A: Here, "which" does not modify 1992 but rather it correctly modifies "\$167 billion". I understand that ", which" directly modifies the noun before the comma but there are exceptions. Here "in 1992" modifies "167 billion" and thus ",which" modifies "\$167 billion". The reason this option should be eliminated is there is a comparison error. This option compares the increase to "previous year".

A similar example for the use of ", which" is " I killed a snake with scales, which was entering the garden". This is a correct sentence. Logic precedes grammar.

B: This option should be eliminated because the option uses "it" in the phrase "higher than it was the previous year". The other side of the comparison uses "sales" which is plural

C: Hold. "14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure" correctly modifies "\$167 billion in 1992". However, I also understand that in this case "Sales of United States manufactured goods to non industrialized countries" becomes the source of the list and that "rose to \$167 billion in 1992" and "largely offsets weak demand from Europe and Japan." are the elements in the list, which are not parallel on grounds of verb tense.

D: Same as B. Comparison error

E: Looks correct but then I noticed that "that" was missing before "largely offsets...". "That" is needed here to maintain parallelism. Hence eliminated.

egmat / GMATNinja,

Kindly let me know if my analysis approach is correct though I marked C, which is wrong. Please let me know where am I going wrong. Especially, please explain how is E correct.
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
Joined: 16 Oct 2010
Posts: 8664
Location: Pune, India
Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 01:45
aviejay wrote:
blayel wrote:

A and B should be eliminated outright because which modifies 1992 directly (and falsely). C is very obscure in meaning because a modifier is usually placed right next to the thing it modifies. This leaves D and E.

By meaning, D is blatantly wrong because it compares the amount with the previous year.

By meaning (and also after elimination), E is the best choice.

Previously, I also doubted the strict parallelism rule. Yet, I remember reading somewhere about the current type of parallelism in the sentence and it is accepted. I think it depends on how clear the comparison refers to. This may be hard for non-native English speakers because the native speakers may "play by ear" in these types of sentences.

aviejay wrote:
Hi egmat / GMATNinja,

Please explain how is E correct. Don't we need a "that" in front of "largely offsets..." in order to maintain parallelism ?

Hi Blayel,

I really appreciate your response, but I would like to disagree with your analysis. Here is my analysis:

A: Here, "which" does not modify 1992 but rather it correctly modifies "\$167 billion". I understand that ", which" directly modifies the noun before the comma but there are exceptions. Here "in 1992" modifies "167 billion" and thus ",which" modifies "\$167 billion". The reason this option should be eliminated is there is a comparison error. This option compares the increase to "previous year".

A similar example is " I killed a snake with scales, which was entering the garden". This is a correct sentence. Logic precedes grammar.

B: This option should be eliminated because the option uses "it" in the phrase "higher than it was the previous year". The other side of the comparison uses "sales" which is plural

C: Hold. "14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure" correctly modifies "\$167 billion in 1992". However, I also understand that in this case "Sales of United States manufactured goods to non industrialized countries" becomes the source of the list and that "rose to \$167 billion in 1992" and "largely offsets weak demand from Europe and Japan." are the elements in the list, which are not parallel on grounds of verb tense.

D: Same as B. Comparison error

E: Looks correct but then I noticed that "that" was missing before "largely offsets...". "That" is needed here to maintain parallelism. Hence eliminated.

egmat / GMATNinja,

Kindly let me know if my analysis approach is correct though I marked C, which is wrong. Please let me know where am I going wrong. Especially, please explain how is E correct.

It is not necessary to repeat "that". We can assume that it exists for both.

"... that A and B" is fine.
"... that A and that B" is fine too.
"... that A, that B and C" is not correct.

If you repeat it for one of the other elements, you must repeat for all. Else you repeat for none.

Sometimes you might need to repeat some words to show which elements are parallel to which. Here is a post that explains this: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2018/0 ... lism-part/

(E) is correct.
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Karishma
Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor

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Joined: 20 Jun 2018
Posts: 21
Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 02:13
Can someone please tell me why "an amount" is correct here? Shouldn't it be "a number"?
Intern
Joined: 19 Feb 2017
Posts: 44
Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 12:17
noboru wrote:
613. Sales of United States manufactured goods to nonindustrialized countries rose to \$167 billion in 1992, which is 14 percent more than the previous year and largely offsets weak demand from Europe and Japan.

(A) which is 14 percent more than the previous year
(B) which is 14 percent higher than it was the previous year
(C) 14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure
(D) an amount that is 14 percent more than the previous year was
(E) an amount that is 14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure

VeritasPrepKarishma
Thanks for you explanation Karishma. However, I have come across Official GMAT questions (I donot remember which ones) in which "...that A and B" has been taken as incorrect. Let me search for those questions and get back to you.

Meanwhile, can you please go through my analysis and let me know if it is correct for rest of the choices, esp. choices A and C?
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GMAT 1: 670 Q48 V36
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Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2018, 23:59
noboru wrote:
613. Sales of United States manufactured goods to nonindustrialized countries rose to \$167 billion in 1992, which is 14 percent more than the previous year and largely offsets weak demand from Europe and Japan.

(A) which is 14 percent more than the previous year
(B) which is 14 percent higher than it was the previous year
(C) 14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure
(D) an amount that is 14 percent more than the previous year was
(E) an amount that is 14 percent higher than the previous year’s figure

Imo E

A very good example of the absolute phrase .
In original sentence we have two absolute phrases connected by and .
A is out for using which incorrectly
B Again same error as A
C We have noun missing to have proper Noun + modifier phrase
D Incorrect comparison and parallelism
E correct
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Re: Sales of United States manufactured goods to &nbs [#permalink] 26 Jun 2018, 23:59

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