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# The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen

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Manager
Joined: 28 Aug 2010
Posts: 139
The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 03 Nov 2019, 00:48
2
00:00

Difficulty:

15% (low)

Question Stats:

72% (01:09) correct 28% (01:17) wrong based on 142 sessions

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The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percent a year in the next decade, largely because new federal rules calling for major modifications to older planes and because the airlines are adding hundreds of new jets.

(A) new federal rules calling for major modifications to older planes
(B) new federal rules, which call for major modifications to older planes
(C) new federal rules call for major modifications to older planes
(D) major modifications to older planes called for by new federal rules
(E) major modifications to older planes are called for according to new federal rules

Even though I got it right but i took some time to figure it out. Please can some explain this sc

Originally posted by ajit257 on 05 Dec 2010, 08:44.
Last edited by Bunuel on 03 Nov 2019, 00:48, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Status: Three Down.
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1808
Concentration: General Management, Nonprofit
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2010, 09:21
ajit257 wrote:
8. The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to
largely because new federal rules calling for major
modifications to older planes
and because the air-
lines are adding hundreds of new jets.

(A) new federal rules calling for major modifica-
tions to older planes
(B) new federal rules, which call for major modifi-
cations to older planes
(C) new federal rules call for major modifications
to older planes
(D) major modifications to older planes called for
by new federal rules
(E) major modifications to older planes are called
for according to new federal rules

Even though I got it right but i took some time to figure it out. Please can some explain this sc

This is a parallelism issue. If you notice the structure, the clause "new federal rules calling for major
modifications to older planes" is not really parallel with the second clause. Any clause in the answer choices that pose the same problem of relative usage can be ruled out and hence we can eliminate A and B. D and E can be eliminated because of voice. Hence the answer is C.

Once again: Post the first few words of the question in the title AND tag the source.
Manager
Joined: 17 Sep 2010
Posts: 157
Concentration: General Management, Finance
GPA: 3.59
WE: Corporate Finance (Entertainment and Sports)
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2010, 09:42
C.

Sounded the best, but the phrase "new federal rules calling" doesn't make much sense.

ajit257 wrote:
8. The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to
largely because new federal rules calling for major
modifications to older planes
and because the air-
lines are adding hundreds of new jets.

(A) new federal rules calling for major modifica-
tions to older planes
(B) new federal rules, which call for major modifi-
cations to older planes
(C) new federal rules call for major modifications
to older planes
(D) major modifications to older planes called for
by new federal rules
(E) major modifications to older planes are called
for according to new federal rules

Even though I got it right but i took some time to figure it out. Please can some explain this sc
Manager
Joined: 07 Oct 2010
Posts: 121
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2010, 11:42
Quote:
(A) new federal rules calling for major modifica-
tions to older planes.................................."calling for" unidiomatic

(B) new federal rules, which call for major modifi-
cations to older planes...............................wrong use of "which"

(C) new federal rules call for major modifications
to older planes.........................................."call for" correct idiom

(D) major modifications to older planes called for
by new federal rules...................................passive voice hence not preferable

(E) major modifications to older planes are called
for according to new federal rules.................awkward

Hence "C"
Manhattan Prep Instructor
Joined: 22 Sep 2010
Posts: 166
Schools: MBA, Thunderbird School of Global Management / BA, Wesleyan University
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2010, 19:17
3
ajit257,

First off, Kudos to you for asking about a question that you got right! Too often we stop studying a question simply because we got it right, even if we didn't really master it.

Now: This question has a bunch of errors and common misconceptions, so I want to help break it down:

1. First issue: "because...calling for" (participles vs. verbs)

"New federal rules call for modifications to planes." --> This is correct. "New federal rules" is the subject, and "call" is the verb.

"New federal rules calling for modifications to planes were enacted by the FAA." --> This is also correct. Here, the subject is 'new federal rules" and "were enacted" is the predicate. The middleman "calling for modifications to planes" modifies the rules, and thus "calling" is a participle, not a verb.

What we have in this example is:

"New federal rules calling for modification...and..." --> This construction in A is incorrect. There would have to be a verb after "planes" for this to be OK, and there isn't.

2. Second issue: "new federal rules, which call for..." (modifiers)

The construction: "noun - comma - which" could be OK (for example: "The house on the left, which is blue, is huge.") since the noun modifier beginning with "which" correctly describes the noun preceding the comma. Again, as above, you would need a verb after "planes." Here, unfortunately, you don't have a verb for this subject.

3. "called for by" / "called for according to" (active vs passive voice)

In D and E, we have the passive voice: "modifications CALLED for BY" and "ARE CALLED FOR ACCORDING TO."

It's important to note that no SC answer choice will be wrong simply on the basis of passive vs. active verbs. Although we tend to prefer the active voice (many of your future Business school professors will point this out regularly), there is no rule that says "passive voice is wrong."

So D and E are wrong, but not necessarily because they are in passive voice. I'm happy to give this one away, but I'd rather see you smart folks out in cyber world solve this.

What's the most clear grammatical reason D and E are wrong?

Brett
Manager
Joined: 03 May 2015
Posts: 54
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2015, 17:30
BKimball wrote:
ajit257,

First off, Kudos to you for asking about a question that you got right! Too often we stop studying a question simply because we got it right, even if we didn't really master it.

Now: This question has a bunch of errors and common misconceptions, so I want to help break it down:

1. First issue: "because...calling for" (participles vs. verbs)

"New federal rules call for modifications to planes." --> This is correct. "New federal rules" is the subject, and "call" is the verb.

"New federal rules calling for modifications to planes were enacted by the FAA." --> This is also correct. Here, the subject is 'new federal rules" and "were enacted" is the predicate. The middleman "calling for modifications to planes" modifies the rules, and thus "calling" is a participle, not a verb.

What we have in this example is:

"New federal rules calling for modification...and..." --> This construction in A is incorrect. There would have to be a verb after "planes" for this to be OK, and there isn't.

2. Second issue: "new federal rules, which call for..." (modifiers)

The construction: "noun - comma - which" could be OK (for example: "The house on the left, which is blue, is huge.") since the noun modifier beginning with "which" correctly describes the noun preceding the comma. Again, as above, you would need a verb after "planes." Here, unfortunately, you don't have a verb for this subject.

3. "called for by" / "called for according to" (active vs passive voice)

In D and E, we have the passive voice: "modifications CALLED for BY" and "ARE CALLED FOR ACCORDING TO."

It's important to note that no SC answer choice will be wrong simply on the basis of passive vs. active verbs. Although we tend to prefer the active voice (many of your future Business school professors will point this out regularly), there is no rule that says "passive voice is wrong."

So D and E are wrong, but not necessarily because they are in passive voice. I'm happy to give this one away, but I'd rather see you smart folks out in cyber world solve this.

What's the most clear grammatical reason D and E are wrong?

Brett

D - I guess has same problem as in A. it expects a verb after construction and 'called' is not a verb here.

E - This one was tough to reason out. I cant see any exact problem here. if not C, E would have been my option. Other than being passive when compared with C. Or the position of 'according to new fed rules' is incorrect? i guess..
Intern
Joined: 18 Mar 2019
Posts: 26
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2019, 03:30
Call for - make necessary or demand

I think D and E are very awkward. Option D seems to convey as though "major modification" is needed for "Older planes called for by new federal rules", it doesn't say that modification is made necessary or called for, rather it is modifying 'plane', leading to the meaning 'major modification to the older planes that are made necessary by federal rule. So, it's the older planes, here, that are made necessary, not the modification to the older planes. This leads to alter the meaning of the sentence. Moreover, even it has a grammatical mistake because 'called' here needs 'are' before 'called' to complete the sentence for proper sense, otherwise the sentence gives a wrong as if 'modification' is demanding or making something necessary.
E -- 'BY' could be a better use than 'according to' and the sentence is a bit wordy and very clumsy

(D) major modifications to older planes called for
by new federal rules
(E) major modifications to older planes are called
for according to new federal rules
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Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 9080
Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2019, 00:45
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percen   [#permalink] 03 Nov 2019, 00:45