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The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually

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The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2012, 14:41
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The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal, and metabolic processes.

(A) The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's

(B) Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's

(C) The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of

(D) Circadian dysrhythmia, as jet lag is called by medical practitioners, disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of

(E) As jet lag is called by medical practitioners, circadians dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of

http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,922928,00.html

That pace led some observers of the diplomatic community to wonder if the Secretary's health and judgment in the crucial Falkland Islands negotiations could withstand the stress of such globe-hopping. The London press thought not. Noting Haig's drawn, tired features after one meeting, the Daily Mirror trumpeted, HOW MUCH MORE CAN HAIG'S HEART STAND? Haig's heart is not the only questionable factor. Virtually all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal and metabolic processes are also taxed in global jet travel.

Circadian dysrhythmia, the medical name for jet lag, is a recognized disorder. Zooming through time zones upsets biological clocks and desynchronizes functions such as sleep, hunger, elimination and sex. The body resists its forcible relocation in the external world with numerous warning signals: sleepiness, insomnia, dimmed vision, throat discomfort and irritability.

<Reasoning>

a) should put comma after circadian dysrhythmia but still a little awkward even if put a comma.

b) the thousands of the body's -> wrong.

c) same as a

d) & e) -> don't know.

For me, d & e look the same. just the location of this part "As jet lag is called by medical practitioners" is different.
Some said that e is cause and effect.
What's the differences between d and e in terms of meaning if there are differences?
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2012, 23:15
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I think that the major issues have mostly been addressed, but let's think about how an expert test-taker would approach this question.

At Manhattan GMAT, we rely mostly on differences among the answer choices, "splits", to tell us what grammatical problems are at issue in the sentence. Sometimes, though, structures in the original sentence signal a grammatical issue.

For instance, if the sentence begins with a modifying phrase or clause, then some of the wrong answers will almost certainly include misplaced modifiers. This sentence begins with the The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia.... When a sentence begins noun phrase, noun phrase..., one of those noun phrases is likely an appositive, a noun used as an adjective.

(By the way, I've actually used a couple of appositives in this reply, in differences among the answer choices, "splits", the noun "splits" modifies the noun phrase differences among the answer choices, and in an appositive, a noun used as an adjective, the noun phrase a noun used as an adjective modifies the noun an appositive. )

Because this sentence begins with this structure, let's make sure one of the nouns correctly modifies the other.
In A, the subject of the main clause is not the name "circadian dysrhythmia" but the disorder itself, and the medical name for jet lag describes the name rather than the disorder. Eliminate A.
In B, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag plausibly modifies the subject circadian dysrhythmia, but that makes the subject of the sentence the name rather than the disorder itself. But surely the name doesn't disrupt the body's systems. Eliminate B.
In C, the phrase the medical name for jet lag incorrectly modifies the subject, which is is the disorder rather than the name of the disorder. Eliminate C.
D doesn't use the same sort of modifier, so let it stand.
E doesn't use the same sort of modifier, so let it stand.

I've assumed here that we look at just one issue at a time, and of course that's not always true, but it's a good discipline. Now we'll have to turn to some other issue to eliminate the remaining wrong answer. Chembeti's account of E is basically right, a clause like as X is known must follow the name it describes, not precede it.

(By the way, as at the beginning of a sentence can be reasonably glossed in quite a number of ways: simultaneously with "As the drug takes effect, you will begin to feel lightheaded"; because, "As you signed a release, we will not be held responsible for the effects of the drug trial"; in the capacity of, "As your doctor, I recommend that you not participate in this trial"; etc.)
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2012, 09:06
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eybrj2 wrote:
The mdical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtualy all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal, and metabolic processes.

a)
b) Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's
C) The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of
d) Circadian dysrhythmia, as jet lag is called by medical practitioners, disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of
e) As jet lag is called by medical practitioners, circadians dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of



<Reasoning>

a) should put comma after circadian dysrhythmia but still a little awkward even if put a comma.

b) the thousands of the body's -> wrong.

c) same as a

d) & e) -> don't know.

For me, d & e look the same. just the location of this part "As jet lag is called by medical practitioners" is different.
Some said that e is cause and effect.
What's the differences between d and e in terms of meaning if there are differences?


The phrase 'as X' is used in two ways/contexts:
1. In the context of describing something: in that case, this phrase should come immediately after the word that it refers to. This is what is happening in D.

For e.g., India, as Bharath is called by many parts of the world, is a fast developing country.
Here, both the names 'India' & 'Bharat' refer to same country.

2. In the context of cause and effect: in this case, the phrase should come first as the cause of something and then the sentence should complete with that something as the effect.

For e.,g,. As India adopted liberal trade policies, it is able to make successful huge business with many countries in the world.

Hope this is clear.
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2012, 15:13
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a) The medical name for jetlag => is not disrupting the body's processes. Jetlag is!
b) all of the thousands of the body's => awkward
c) same as a)
d) corrects the mistake of a)
e) As jetlag is called => awkward

D is correct
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2012, 23:55
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Answer is D.It is not the medical name which does the disruption.Its rather the jet lag which does it. :)
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2012, 09:15
srezzi wrote:
a) The medical name for jetlag => is not disrupting the body's processes. Jetlag is!
b) all of the thousands of the body's => awkward
c) same as a)
d) corrects the mistake of a)
e) As jetlag is called => awkward

D is correct


B & E gives wrong impressions..

B gives an impression that the disease is disrupting thousands of bodies (of course it uses body's, but still....)

E says because it is called by medical practitioners jet lag is disrupting. So, if not called by them, it won't disrupt?
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2012, 23:57
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D is the correct as circadians dysrhythmia followed by its modifying phrase seems right whereas "As jet lag is called by medical practitioners, circadians dysrhythmia " seems not right. So go with D.
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2013, 10:45
MichaelS wrote:
I think that the major issues have mostly been addressed, but let's think about how an expert test-taker would approach this question.

At Manhattan GMAT, we rely mostly on differences among the answer choices, "splits", to tell us what grammatical problems are at issue in the sentence. Sometimes, though, structures in the original sentence signal a grammatical issue.

For instance, if the sentence begins with a modifying phrase or clause, then some of the wrong answers will almost certainly include misplaced modifiers. This sentence begins with the The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia.... When a sentence begins noun phrase, noun phrase..., one of those noun phrases is likely an appositive, a noun used as an adjective.

(By the way, I've actually used a couple of appositives in this reply, in differences among the answer choices, "splits", the noun "splits" modifies the noun phrase differences among the answer choices, and in an appositive, a noun used as an adjective, the noun phrase a noun used as an adjective modifies the noun an appositive. )

Because this sentence begins with this structure, let's make sure one of the nouns correctly modifies the other.
In A, the subject of the main clause is not the name "circadian dysrhythmia" but the disorder itself, and the medical name for jet lag describes the name rather than the disorder. Eliminate A.
In B, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag plausibly modifies the subject circadian dysrhythmia, but that makes the subject of the sentence the name rather than the disorder itself. But surely the name doesn't disrupt the body's systems. Eliminate B.
In C, the phrase the medical name for jet lag incorrectly modifies the subject, which is is the disorder rather than the name of the disorder. Eliminate C.
D doesn't use the same sort of modifier, so let it stand.
E doesn't use the same sort of modifier, so let it stand.

I've assumed here that we look at just one issue at a time, and of course that's not always true, but it's a good discipline. Now we'll have to turn to some other issue to eliminate the remaining wrong answer. Chembeti's account of E is basically right, a clause like as X is known must follow the name it describes, not precede it.

(By the way, as at the beginning of a sentence can be reasonably glossed in quite a number of ways: simultaneously with "As the drug takes effect, you will begin to feel lightheaded"; because, "As you signed a release, we will not be held responsible for the effects of the drug trial"; in the capacity of, "As your doctor, I recommend that you not participate in this trial"; etc.)



I am not very clear on B .

If u take out the modifier - it reads as
Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's <> .
It is not saying that " the name disrupts virtually all of ......." , but rather is saying " Circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the....." , which is the intended meaning ?..

I don't know where is it that I am going wrong .
Appreciate if you can help clarify on this.

Thanks,
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2013, 22:34
gmacforjyoab wrote:
MichaelS wrote:
I think that the major issues have mostly been addressed, but let's think about how an expert test-taker would approach this question.

At Manhattan GMAT, we rely mostly on differences among the answer choices, "splits", to tell us what grammatical problems are at issue in the sentence. Sometimes, though, structures in the original sentence signal a grammatical issue.

For instance, if the sentence begins with a modifying phrase or clause, then some of the wrong answers will almost certainly include misplaced modifiers. This sentence begins with the The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia.... When a sentence begins noun phrase, noun phrase..., one of those noun phrases is likely an appositive, a noun used as an adjective.

(By the way, I've actually used a couple of appositives in this reply, in differences among the answer choices, "splits", the noun "splits" modifies the noun phrase differences among the answer choices, and in an appositive, a noun used as an adjective, the noun phrase a noun used as an adjective modifies the noun an appositive. )

Because this sentence begins with this structure, let's make sure one of the nouns correctly modifies the other.
In A, the subject of the main clause is not the name "circadian dysrhythmia" but the disorder itself, and the medical name for jet lag describes the name rather than the disorder. Eliminate A.
In B, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag plausibly modifies the subject circadian dysrhythmia, but that makes the subject of the sentence the name rather than the disorder itself. But surely the name doesn't disrupt the body's systems. Eliminate B.
In C, the phrase the medical name for jet lag incorrectly modifies the subject, which is is the disorder rather than the name of the disorder. Eliminate C.
D doesn't use the same sort of modifier, so let it stand.
E doesn't use the same sort of modifier, so let it stand.

I've assumed here that we look at just one issue at a time, and of course that's not always true, but it's a good discipline. Now we'll have to turn to some other issue to eliminate the remaining wrong answer. Chembeti's account of E is basically right, a clause like as X is known must follow the name it describes, not precede it.

(By the way, as at the beginning of a sentence can be reasonably glossed in quite a number of ways: simultaneously with "As the drug takes effect, you will begin to feel lightheaded"; because, "As you signed a release, we will not be held responsible for the effects of the drug trial"; in the capacity of, "As your doctor, I recommend that you not participate in this trial"; etc.)



I am not very clear on B .

If u take out the modifier - it reads as
Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's <> .
It is not saying that " the name disrupts virtually all of ......." , but rather is saying " Circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the....." , which is the intended meaning ?..

I don't know where is it that I am going wrong .
Appreciate if you can help clarify on this.

Thanks,
Jyothi


Say I never heard of Circadian dysrhythmia

Circadian dysrhythmia, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's <> .

Reading the above sentence, I would wish to know What is Circadian dysrhythmia ? And the noun phrase answers this as -- the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag.

So what I infer is Circadian dysrhythmia is the name and following your approach, I further infer from the given sentence that the name disrupts body's neural processes. It sounds as if jet lag had been named differently, it would never disrupt the body's metabolism.

The above noun phrase will sound best in a sentence where we talk about the name itself.

e.g:

Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, is coined by *some doctor*.

-- as in the above sentence the focal point of the discussion is the name and we are not concerned about the medical condition.

Hope the above explanation helped you a bit
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New post 20 Nov 2013, 10:47
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gmacforjyoab wrote:
I am not very clear on B .


B has a modifier issue. It says:

Circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal, and metabolic processes.

"thousands" is intended to modify "processes" (neural, hormonal, and metabolic), while in B, "thousands" seems to be modifying "body's"!!
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 08:11
Quote:
The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal, and metabolic processes.


Quote:
(B) Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's

generis AjiteshArun VeritasKarishma

I want to confirm that there is no subject verb disagreement is (B)

that = refers back to name
subject = practitioners (plural)
plural verb = use

I agree with the modifier issues discussed in (B) on this thread. :)
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 23:57
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Can you please help me to eliminate B
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New post 12 May 2019, 08:09
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(B) Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's

In addition to the reasons stated above by some of the other members, another angle to eliminate B is to look at what all is modifying. IMO, all should modify body's and not the thousands. At least that is what I used to eliminate.

And yes, I don't think there is any S-V disagreement in option B. adkikani
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2019, 19:24
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adkikani wrote:
generis AjiteshArun VeritasKarishma

I want to confirm that there is no subject verb disagreement is (B)

that = refers back to name
subject = practitioners (plural)
plural verb = use

I agree with the modifier issues discussed in (B) on this thread. :)
You're right about the SVA in that option.

1. The use is for medical practitioners.
and
2. The disrupts is for Circadian dysrhythmia.
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New post 07 Aug 2019, 18:39
The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal, and metabolic processes.

A and C seem to indicate that the medical name does the disrupting.
Also, "X disrupts all of the thousands of the body's" indicates a different relationship from saying "the body's thousands". It is the body that has possession of the neural, hormonal and metabolic processes, not the thousands.
(A) The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's
(C) The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of
(B) Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's

(D) Circadian dysrhythmia, as jet lag is called by medical practitioners, disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of

(E) As jet lag is called by medical practitioners, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of
We would typically say "as x is reffered to" or "as X is called" when referring to a term preceding the explanation.
E.g. "Maccas, as the aussies call McDonalds, is a fast food chain"
E also seems to indicate that as X occurs, Y occurs i,e, As X is called, Y disrupts. I'm not sure if i've misinterpreted this.
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2019, 05:43
Chembeti wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
The mdical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtualy all of the thousands of the body's neural, hormonal, and metabolic processes.

a)
b) Circadian dysrhythmia, the name that medical practitioners use for jet lag, disrupts virtually all of the thousands of the body's
C) The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of
d) Circadian dysrhythmia, as jet lag is called by medical practitioners, disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of
e) As jet lag is called by medical practitioners, circadians dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of



<Reasoning>

a) should put comma after circadian dysrhythmia but still a little awkward even if put a comma.

b) the thousands of the body's -> wrong.

c) same as a

d) & e) -> don't know.

For me, d & e look the same. just the location of this part "As jet lag is called by medical practitioners" is different.
Some said that e is cause and effect.
What's the differences between d and e in terms of meaning if there are differences?


The phrase 'as X' is used in two ways/contexts:
1. In the context of describing something: in that case, this phrase should come immediately after the word that it refers to. This is what is happening in D.

For e.g., India, as Bharath is called by many parts of the world, is a fast developing country.
Here, both the names 'India' & 'Bharat' refer to same country.

2. In the context of cause and effect: in this case, the phrase should come first as the cause of something and then the sentence should complete with that something as the effect.

For e.,g,. As India adopted liberal trade policies, it is able to make successful huge business with many countries in the world.

Hope this is clear.


GMATNinja egmat

Still not clear why E is wrong here. Please guide.

Chembeti as far as i understand, As is used in 4 ways: comparison, simultaneous action, reason and role/ function. Which of the 4 roles is "as" playing here in D ?
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Re: The medical name for jet lag, circadian dysrhythmia disrupts virtually  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2019, 19:58
azhrhasan wrote:
Still not clear why E is wrong here. Please guide.

Chembeti as far as i understand, As is used in 4 ways: comparison, simultaneous action, reason and role/ function. Which of the 4 roles is "as" playing here in D ?

Quote:
(D) Circadian dysrhythmia, as jet lag is called by medical practitioners, disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of

(E) As jet lag is called by medical practitioners, circadians dysrhythmia disrupts virtually all of the body's thousands of

The only difference between (D) and (E) is the placement of the words, "as jet lag is called by medical practitioners".

In choice (D), this comma-separated group of words very clearly gives us more information about "Circadian dysrhythmia".

The problem with choice (E) is that the opening modifier seems to modify the entire subsequent clause--that is, the main subject AND verb of the sentence, "circadians dysrhythmia disrupts". This leads to nonsensical interpretations... are we saying that circadians dysrhythmia disrupts the body's processes SINCE it is called jet lag by medical practitioners? Does circadians dysrhythmia disrupt the body's processes WHILE jet lag is called by medical practitioners?

Does choice (E) break any obvious grammar rules? No, but the structure of (E) creates meaning issues that are avoided in choice (D). That makes (D) the better choice!

Quote:
@Chembeti as far as i understand, As is used in 4 ways: comparison, simultaneous action, reason and role/ function. Which of the 4 roles is "as" playing here in D ?

Another public service announcement: memorizing esoteric rules and then applying them too rigidly usually does more harm than good. Rather than thinking about which of the four categories "as" falls into, just think about the meaning of the example you're reading!

More broadly, you want to think really hard about each answer choice. Sure, you have to know certain grammar rules, but if you are trying to memorize/apply an endless list of grammar "rules" to avoid thinking really hard about the meaning, then you're barking up the wrong tree. :)
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