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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit

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Magoosh GMAT Instructor
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Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4503

Kudos [?]: 8789 [0], given: 106

Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2017, 11:43
sunny91 wrote:

Hi Mike,
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so is comma+ing (including) presently gives additional information about the preceding clause.

Dear sunny91,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, here's what I'll say. Some students imagine that they can learn all the "rules" to grammar and that this rule-based approach will lead to GMAT SC mastery. That approach is doomed to failure. Yes, it absolutely is important to learn the basic rules of grammar--those alone give you about 25% of what you need for GMAT SC. Beyond that, you need to develop intuition for the way that sentences convey meaning through logic and rhetoric. The only way for a non-native speaker to develop this intuition is through an assiduous habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

I will also say, on the rules side, please be precise in your language. Precision in language support precision in thought. The form of a verb that ends in -ing can be part of a progressive tense verb or a participle or a gerund. It's important to learn the precise language.

When we have
[independent clause],[participle]
there's no one-size-fits-all rule for this case. Sometimes the participle is a noun-modifier modifying the noun that it touches. Sometimes the participle is a noun modifier that modifies the subject of the sentence. Sometimes the participle is a verb modifier modifying the action of the independent clause. So much depends on the meaning conveyed in the independent clause, the rhetorical emphasis within the independent clause, and the meaning of the modifier. In this particular case, the modifier "including" by its very nature must modify some collection or set: in this sentence, it absolutely cannot modify the subject, Daniel Inouye, and has to modify the noun "several posts." Again, the best way to develop intuition for all these nuances is to develop a habit of reading.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

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Kudos [?]: 8789 [0], given: 106

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2017, 11:43

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