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A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf

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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2017, 18:30
Please help with Q no 43...Why D is not correct option here....
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2017, 22:05
Skywalker18 wrote:
Nice passage , took 8 mins 15 seconds to read, including almost 4 mins to read the passage . All correct


well done - could you please explain why 1B is the correct answer? i didn't pick B because the passage says the cycle is 8 - 11 years, so just shortening the cycle could have been 1 day and thus irrelevant.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2017, 02:06
Is this really a 700 level passage?

Thought it was more a mid-high, than a high difficulty passage.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2017, 08:29
1
1. We need to weaken the conclusion that something more intimately connected helps in declining the population.

Now, refer to the line prior to the highlighted one. "population ecologists’ attempts to alter cycles by changing the caterpillars’ habitat and by reducing caterpillar populations have not succeeded."

So, from B, we see that by changing the habitat in one particular way, there is a decline in the population.

Virus is not mentioned in the 1st para. Rest options are irrelevant.

This makes B the correct one.


2. " The common approach of studying causes of population cycles by measuring the mortality caused by different agents, such as predatory birds or parasites"

Thus A.

3. In the last para, "One of the attractions of this hypothesis" clearly mentions this as a hypothesis about the driving force behind population cycles in lepidoptera.

Hence, C.

4. In the 2nd para, "but population ecologists had usually considered viral disease to have contributed to the decline once it was underway rather than to have initiated it." Makes D the correct answer.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2018, 08:16
can somebody explain Q44?
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2018, 09:14
gauravmarwaha wrote:
I guess this is a new addition to the OG 16 Guide...Can someone explain question numbers 44 and 47?

44. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s conclusion in lines 25- 30 (bold lines)?

A. New research reveals that the number of species of birds and parasites that prey on lepidoptera has dropped significantly in recent years.
B. New experiments in which the habitats of lepidoptera are altered in previously untried ways result in the shortening of lepidoptera population cycles.
C. Recent experiments have revealed that the nuclear polyhedrosis virus is present in a number of predators and parasites of lepidoptera.
D. Differences among the habitats of lepidoptera species make it difficult to assess the effects of weather on lepidoptera population cycles.
E. Viral disease is typically observed in a large proportion of the lepidoptera population.

It can be inferred from the bold lines that the insect populations (population cycles) is / are regulated by some other factor and not the ones mentioned in the first para (before the boldfaced portion). So, if we were to weaken this conclusion, what would be the best answer option?
I could easily eliminate options E, C and A and chose option D over B. Can someone help?

47.It can be inferred from the passage that while inside its polyhedrin protein crystals, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus

A. is exposed to direct sunlight
B. is attractive to predators
C. cannot infect caterpillars' cells
D. cannot be ingested by caterpillars
E. cannot be detected by new techniques of molecular biology

Well, I chose option D, which is wrong as it's explicitly mentioned in the passage that "Once ingested by a caterpillar, the crystals dissolve, releasing the virus to infect the insect’s cells" But I fail to understand why answer choice C is correct and how this option can be inferred. Looking forward to response from all you good people:)



Hi gauravmarwaha

it says:
Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses are hypothesized to be the driving force behind population cycles in lepidoptera in part because the viruses themselves follow an infectious cycle in which, if protected from direct sun light, they may remain virulent for many years in the environment, embedded in durable crystals of polyhedrin protein. Once ingested by a caterpillar, the crystals dissolve, releasing the virus to infect the insect’s cells.

So these viruses cant INFECT caterpillars' cells as long as these viruses are embedded in durable crystals of polyhedrin protein.

hope it helps :)
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2018, 15:57
Hi mikemcgarry,

Can you please help me to understand Q42 . I am having hard time accepting it as hypothesis . As something can't be hypothesis if DNA based proofs are given. I referred following lines for the same.

"The recent work has been made possible by new techniques of molecular biology that allow viral DNA to be detected at low concentrations in the environment."

by this reasoning I end up selecting B as answer, as this is also a close call answer.

Thanks in advance.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2018, 06:26
Hi,

Can someone explain Q44?

44. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s conclusion in lines 25- 30 (bold lines)?

A. New research reveals that the number of species of birds and parasites that prey on lepidoptera has dropped significantly in recent years.
B. New experiments in which the habitats of lepidoptera are altered in previously untried ways result in the shortening of lepidoptera population cycles.
C. Recent experiments have revealed that the nuclear polyhedrosis virus is present in a number of predators and parasites of lepidoptera.
D. Differences among the habitats of lepidoptera species make it difficult to assess the effects of weather on lepidoptera population cycles.
E. Viral disease is typically observed in a large proportion of the lepidoptera population.

I was down to B and C but went with C since the later part of the line dismisses the relationship with predators and the driving force of the life cycle
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2018, 11:20
C, A, B, D, E, C ; not a bad passage to read...but takes little time to understand.

100% Let know if any one needs help!
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2018, 15:24
Can someone please explain this one:

47.It can be inferred from the passage that while inside its polyhedrin protein crystals, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus

A. is exposed to direct sunlight
B. is attractive to predators
C. cannot infect caterpillars' cells
D. cannot be ingested by caterpillars
E. cannot be detected by new techniques of molecular biology

Well, I chose option D

I fail to understand why answer choice C is correct and how this option can be inferred.

TIA :)
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2018, 08:21
ritikajain1988

Once ingested by a caterpillar, the crystals dissolve, releasing the virus to infect the insect’s cells.

Dissolve, resulting into release of Virus, unless dissolved or in words of the question, if remains inside the polyhedrin protein crystals, it cannot release virus, thus cannot infect caterpillar cells.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2018, 23:11
GMATNinja nightblade354 pikolo2510 VeritasPrepKarishma
Can you please explain Q1. I could not proceed beyond identification of conclusion here.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2018, 01:31
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) describe the development of new techniques that
may help to determine the driving force behind
population cycles in lepidoptera
(B) present evidence that refutes a particular theory
about the driving force behind population cycles
in lepidoptera
(C) present a hypothesis about the driving force
behind population cycles in lepidoptera
(D) describe the fl uctuating patterns of population
cycles in lepidoptera
(E) question the idea that a single driving force is
behind population cycles in lepidoptera

I don't understand why option A is wrong.
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A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 11:58
3
Quote:
6. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s conclusion in lines 25- 30 (bold lines)?

This question asks us to flex our CR muscles, but let's first take a moment to nail down the structure and purpose of this passage:

  • In paragraph 1, the author explains that a small number of lepidoptera species exhibit population cycles, and states that the driving force behind these cycles is difficult to identify. The author concludes that this driving force may be intimately connected to the insect itself, rather than being connected to the insect's predators or parasites.
  • In paragraph 2, the author presents recent work, which suggests that this driving force (a.k.a. the agent regulating population cycles) may be a virus.
  • In paragraph 3, the author notes that the virus hypothesis is attractive because it seems broadly applicable across different lepidoptera species.

OK, now let's revisit the conclusion being highlighted:

Quote:
In short, the evidence implies that these insect populations, if not self-regulating, may at least be regulated by an agent more intimately connected with the insect than are predatory birds or parasites.

The author concludes that whatever is regulating the population cycle is closer to the insect than it is to predatory birds or parasites. Here's how the author reaches this conclusion:

  • Studying predatory birds and parasites, thought to be potential agents, has been unproductive in the case of lepidoptera.
  • Recent study of viral disease, thanks to new techniques of molecular biology, has identified nuclear polyhedrosis viruses as a more likely agent.
  • Polyhedrosis viruses follow an infectious cycle that is intimately linked to lepidoptera, in which lepidoptera ingest the virus in the form of crystals, incubate new virus particles within their bodies, and release these crystals back into the environment upon dying.

If we're looking to weaken this conclusion, we need an answer choice that either:

  • contradicts what we've read about this link between polyhedrosis viruses and lepidoptera, or
  • delivers evidence that some other regulating agent is even more likely to be the driving force of these population cycles.

Now let's use process of elimination to go through all five choices.

Quote:
(A) New research reveals that the number of species of birds and parasites that prey on lepidoptera has dropped significantly in recent years.

This choice actually strengthens the conclusion, because it adds evidence that other potential agents (predatory birds and parasites) have significantly decreased in number in recent years. This reinforces what the author stated plainly in paragraph 1. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) New experiments in which the habitats of lepidoptera are altered in previously untried ways result in the shortening of lepidoptera population cycles.

This choice introduces new evidence that the regulating agent we're all looking for might be intimately linked to the habitats of lepidoptera, after all. Most importantly, this choice tells us that whatever these experiments did to habitats, that action definitely resulted in the shortening of lepidoptera population cycles. We'll keep choice (B) because it provides proof that another agent--habitat--can regulate population cycles.

bpdulog wrote:
I was down to B and C but went with C since the later part of the line dismisses the relationship with predators and the driving force of the life cycle

Quote:
(C) Recent experiments have revealed that the nuclear polyhedrosis virus is present in a number of predators and parasites of lepidoptera.

Knowing that the nuclear polyhedrosis virus is present in a number of predators and parasites doesn't change anything we've read about the nuclear polyhedrosis virus and its link to lepidoptera. The author's conclusion does not depend on this virus existing only in lepidoptera. And the language of this answer choice doesn't include any dismissal of the intimate link between polyhedrosis viruses and lepidoptera. It simply points out that the virus is also present in predators and parasites of lepidoptera.

(C) doesn't contradict the impact of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses or provide an alternative agent, so we'll eliminate (C).

gauravmarwaha wrote:
I could easily eliminate options E, C and A and chose option D over B. Can someone help?

Quote:
(D) Differences among the habitats of lepidoptera species make it difficult to assess the effects of weather on lepidoptera population cycles.

Choice (D) does identify a potential alternative agent: weather. However, the logical statement made here is quite weak. (D) tells us that it's difficult to assess the effects of weather on lepidoptera population cycles. So even if it's possible for weather to affect these population cycles, we have no way of confirming whether that effect is actually taking place.

Likewise, I could say, "It's difficult to assess the effects of the lunar cycle on lepidoptera," but this wouldn't make me jump up and say that lunar cycles are likely to be more of a driving force of lepidoptera population cycles than nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. We're not interested in hypothetical effects that are difficult to assess. We're interested in proof that an alternative agent is truly at work. That's why we eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Viral disease is typically observed in a large proportion of the lepidoptera population.

This choice doesn't affect the conclusion. Much like Choice (C), it tells us a little more about the presence of viral disease in lepidoptera populations, but it doesn't mention polyhedrosis viruses and doesn't provide evidence of any alternative agent regulating population cycles. Eliminate (E).

Whew! This may have taken me an entire population cycle to write. (Yes, more bad Dad jokes. I'm practicing them. There's no "negative kudos" button, so you're stuck with them.) After all of that, (B) is the only choice that presents evidence of a regulating agent that is NOT intimately linked to the insect (instead, the agent is linked to the insect's habitat). So we keep (B) and move on.

I hope this helps!
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2018, 00:42
Solved this passage From OG and stuck to 2nd Question.
It can be inferred from the passage that the mortality caused by agents such as predatory birds or parasites was measured in an attempt to.
A. develop an explanation for the existence of lepidoptera population cycles
B. identify behavioral factors in lepidoptera that affect survival rates
C. identify possible methods for controlling lepidoptera population growth
D. provide evidence that lepidoptera populations are self-regulating
E. determine the life stages of lepidoptera at which mortality rates are highest

I choose D over A
Can anyone/expert explain this one
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A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2018, 17:15
For question number 5, I chose E because I could not find any right answer choice A to D. But OA is C. Anyone could help explain why C? Many thanks :)

RC00120-04. It can be inferred from the passage that while inside its polyhedrin protein crystals, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus

(A) is exposed to direct sunlight
(B) is attractive to predators
(C) cannot infect caterpillars' cells
(D) cannot be ingested by caterpillars
(E) cannot be detected by new techniques of molecular biology
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 22:41
GMATNinja workout sir please explain why b and not c???/?
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A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2018, 08:57
1
manjot123 wrote:
GMATNinja workout sir please explain why b and not c???/?



Hello manjot123,

CC workout

Please take care of the points below from the next time onwards :

1. Mention the Q - number ( more preferably the entire Q ) relating to the query.
2. Its always better to add your thought process and analysis with your query for better learning experience.
3. Please go through all the post in that particular thread before you post a query - Your answer might already be there



As far as my IMAGINATION goes.........for your query......... you are looking for Q6 ........ please go through the other posts in this thread....... your answer is already there :-)
And if it is not Q6............ please follow step 01 & 02.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2018, 09:12
phuulinh225 wrote:
For question number 5, I chose E because I could not find any right answer choice A to D. But OA is C. Anyone could help explain why C? Many thanks :)

RC00120-04. It can be inferred from the passage that while inside its polyhedrin protein crystals, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus

(A) is exposed to direct sunlight
(B) is attractive to predators
(C) cannot infect caterpillars' cells
(D) cannot be ingested by caterpillars
(E) cannot be detected by new techniques of molecular biology


Hello phuulinh225,

Thanks for your note . Couple of quick points :

2. Its always better to add your thought process and analysis with your query for better learning experience.
3. Please go through all the post in that particular thread before you post a query - Your answer might already be there


Coming back to your question : "I chose E because I could not find any right answer choice A to D." ---- I understand that you have opted for E through POE method. I would like you to let us know the part(s) in the passage through which you have determined the other 4 (A,B,C & D) to be wrong.
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2018, 12:05
phuulinh225 wrote:
For question number 5, I chose E because I could not find any right answer choice A to D. But OA is C. Anyone could help explain why C? Many thanks :)

RC00120-04. It can be inferred from the passage that while inside its polyhedrin protein crystals, the nuclear polyhedrosis virus

The author describes the behavior of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (let's just say "virus") inside and outsides its polyhedrin protein crystals (let's say "crystals") in the second paragraph.

    Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses are hypothesized to be the driving force behind population cycles in lepidoptera in part because the viruses themselves follow an infectious cycle in which, if protected from direct sun light, they may remain virulent for many years in the environment, embedded in durable crystals of polyhedrin protein. Once ingested by a caterpillar, the crystals dissolve, releasing the virus to infect the insect’s cells. Late in the course of the infection, millions of new virus particles are formed and enclosed in polyhedrin crystals. These crystals reenter the environment after the insect dies and decomposes, thus becoming available to infect other caterpillars.

Let's break down this process to confirm what exactly happens to the virus and its surrounding crystals:

  • The virus is embedded in crystals. The crystals protect the virus from direct sun light.
  • After a caterpillar ingests the crystals, the crystals dissolve.
  • Once the crystals dissolve, the virus infects the caterpillar.
  • At the end of the infection, millions of new virus particles pop up and are enclosed in new crystals.
  • After the caterpillar dies and decomposes, these new crystals reenter the environment.

We're looking for the choice that reflects what the virus can or can't do while it's inside the crystals. And we'll eliminate any choice that doesn't fit into the picture we've just spelled out.

Quote:
(A) While inside its crystals, the virus is exposed to direct sunlight

This is the opposite of what we've read. The crystals protect the virus from direct sunlight. Eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) While inside its crystals, the virus is attractive to predators

When discussing the virus and its crystals, the author never mentions a predator that would treat the crystals or the virus as prey. Choice (B) mixes up the topics of the first and second paragraph. Eliminate it.

Quote:
(C) While inside its crystals, the virus cannot infect caterpillars' cells

This looks good! We know that infection occurs after the crystals dissolve. This implies that before the crystals dissolve, the virus cannot infect caterpillars' cells. Let's keep (C) around and see if the remaining choices are better.

Quote:
(D) While inside its crystals, the virus cannot be ingested by caterpillars

This is totally off the mark. We're told explicitly that caterpillars ingest the crystals. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) While inside its crystals, the virus cannot be detected by new techniques of molecular biology

This also contradicts evidence in the passage. Just before the author gets into the process of how the virus infects caterpillars, the author mentions that "The recent work has been made possible by new techniques of molecular biology that allow viral DNA to be detected at low concentrations in the environment."

This implies that new techniques of molecular biology are certainly able to detect the virus, whether it's inside or outside the crystals. It seems these new techniques are what have allowed researchers to describe the process of ingestion, dissolution, infection, replication, and reentry into the environment. So let's eliminate (E) as well.

I hope this helps!
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Re: A small number of the forest species of lepidoptera (moths and butterf &nbs [#permalink] 24 Oct 2018, 12:05

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