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# Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence re

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Hi,

the correct answer is most definitely choice A.

Here, the task is to ascertain the conclusion: to judge what conclusion the passage is intended to support.

Because the evidence of the passage traffics in "only"(s), the passage is intended to support the extreme conclusion that independence is a "must".

Thus, choice A is the only choice that correctly completes the passage.
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Torn between A and E but going with A here i.e Individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
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broall wrote:
Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture forward. Non-natives may provide valuable advice, but any imposition of their views threatens independence and thus progress. If one looks at individual schools as separate cultures, therefore, the key to educational progress is obvious __________.

Which one of the following best completes the passage?

(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition

(B) some schools require more independence than others, depending on the initiative of their staffs and students

(C) school system officials must tailor their initiatives for change to each individual school in the system

(D) outsiders must be prevented from participation in schools’ effort to advance

(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make

Source: LSAT

(A)-Correct - because it's basically restating the last part of the first sentence, that outside imposition needs to be replaced by inside initiatives.
(B): eliminate just on the basis of "more/less" independence. The idea of a comparative spectrum of independence is out of scope.
Some schools require more independence not depending on the initiatives they got, but depending on how much outsider imposition there is.
(C): School system officials would be considered an outsider, so this can be eliminated.
(D): Argument said that outsiders can still provide valuable advice. So it's not that outsiders must be prevented from all help. Further, the necessary condition as stated in the first sentence is about replacing outside imposition with insider initiatives
(E): The first statement seemed pretty absolute. Culture can advance ONLY when outside imposition replaced with insider initiatives. So a school could become a little more independent, but not replace all of the outsider imposition, and it would still not make any progress
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Hi Experts kindly explain option C and A. I marked C but it seems to be wrong.
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prerakgoel07 wrote:
Hi Experts kindly explain option C and A. I marked C but it seems to be wrong.

The key here is that "imposition by outsiders" must be replaced by "initiative from within".

Quote:
(C) school system officials must tailor their initiatives for change to each individual school in the system

We have a system of schools, and some officials in charge of that system of schools. This does not refer to officials within each of the individual schools. Instead, it refers to officials in charge of several individual schools (all of the schools within that school system).

So the initiatives come from outsiders (the school system officials) rather than insiders (leaders within each individual school). (C) must be eliminated.

Quote:
(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition

"Cultures (or schools) advance only when independence replaces dependence." Therefore, in order to have education progress, the schools have to be independent. In other words, initiatives should come from leaders within each individual school rather than from outsiders (for example, school system officials who oversee several different schools).

I hope that helps!
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Correct option-A
Option E seems wrong because the main jist of the question stem lies in the line below
"the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture forward". and natives will take
"initiatives from within".
Initiatives from within moves the culture forward.
Option E does not cover this idea.
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tenaman10 wrote:
Anthropologists assert that cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, only when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the only ones who can move that culture forward. Non-natives may provide valuable advice, but any imposition of their views threatens independence and thus progress. If one looks at individual schools as separate cultures, therefore, the key to educational progress is obvious______

Which one of the following best completes the passage?

(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition

(B) some schools require more independence than others, depending on the initiative of their staffs and students

(C) school system officials must tailor their initiatives for change to each individual school in the system

(D) outsiders must be prevented from participation in schools’ effort to advance

(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make

Here's an analogy that i get out of this. Its the essence, hope it is understood well.
B and C are easy to eliminate.
If A, D and E are plotted on number line then D is on -1, A is on 1 and E is on 2.
So, E loses out since it takes things bit extreme.

HTHs.
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"necessary" vs "sufficient"

Passage say- cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, ONLY when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the ONLY ones who can move that culture forward

Hence, No imposition is a NECESSARY condition.

Now A vs E.
(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
NECESSARY CONDITION - School will progress ONLY when it is independent.

(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make
SUFFICIENT CONDITION - If the school is independent, it WILL progress. The more independent, the better. Not at all implied.
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Dooperman wrote:
"necessary" vs "sufficient"

Passage say- cultures advance only when independence replaces dependence—that is, ONLY when imposition by outsiders is replaced by initiative from within. In other words, the natives of a culture are the ONLY ones who can move that culture forward

Hence, No imposition is a NECESSARY condition.

Now A vs E.
(A) individual schools must be independent of outside imposition
NECESSARY CONDITION - School will progress ONLY when it is independent.

(E) the more independent a school is, the more educational progress it will make
SUFFICIENT CONDITION - If the school is independent, it WILL progress. The more independent, the better. Not at all implied.

­is your logic wrong for the 2nd part? it is never said so..."If the school is independent, it WILL progresses"