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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el

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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel.


(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolved

(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Reformatted the question based on the Official Guide 2015. (SC 128)

Originally posted by ronybtl on 05 Dec 2005, 22:46.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Sep 2018, 01:40, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2010, 11:24
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Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by private message, so here I am! The answer is certainly E.

Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
PROBLEM: There's no reason to use a comma with a list of two things.

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
PROBLEM: You have to say "that" after the verb "to suggest".

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
PROBLEM: The use of the past perfect tense here is incorrect, because the action isn't complete. I know it may seem like the descent has ended, but in the present, the elephant is STILL descended from an aquatic animal. That's an eternal truth. Also, using the prepositional phrase "with its trunk originally evolving" ends up modifying "an aquatic animal", when we really want to be referring to the elephant.

(D) to suggest that the elephant has descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
PROBLEM: We don't want to change tense in parallel unless there's a significant reason ("yesterday I went to the store but today I will stay at home"). No good reason from present perfect "has descended" to past "evolved".

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
ANSWER: "descended" and "evolved" are parallel, and everything else is clear.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2008, 20:00
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x97agarwal wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
B. that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
C. suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
D. to suggest that the elephant has descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
E. to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Please explain your reasoing?

Why is " elephant is descended" grammatically correct.


evidence should be followed by that here since whatever clause is succeding this gives explanation about what evidence consists of.

hence C,D,E incorrectly point to embryologists instead of evidence.

eliminate C D E
now b/w among A and B ,its trunk evolving is incorrect ,it evolved is correct usage.evolved just once and thts not a continuos process.
A is the answer

Lets see this :
Why is " elephant is descended" grammatically correct.

this is correct always .

usage of suggest

–verb (used with object)
1. to mention or introduce (an idea, proposition, plan, etc.) for consideration or possible action: The architect suggested that the building be restored.
2. to propose (a person or thing) as suitable or possible for some purpose: We suggested him for president.
3. (of things) to prompt the consideration, making, doing, etc., of: The glove suggests that she was at the scene of the crime.
4. to bring before a person's mind indirectly or without plain expression: I didn't tell him to leave, I only suggested it.
5. to call (something) up in the mind through association or natural connection of ideas: The music suggests a still night.

Other examples :
Jerry suggested that tom is back

jerry suggested that the movie is over

I hope i cleared the doubt to some extent.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2010, 11:25
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Go by this maxim, and the answer will pop up. A sentence, which has two arms, if uses - that - to introduce one arm, then it must use - that -to introduce the other arm also to balance the sentence. As per this norm, only E will fit in
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2012, 11:27
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Concept tested: Parallelism, meaning, usage, style.
Difficulty: High
Illustration: “is descended” and “has/had descended” mean two entirely different things. Has/had descended implies going below (literally or metaphorically).
e.g: I had descended a few steps in the cave.
e.g: I would never want to descend to his level of callousness.
Is descended from implies ancestry. So obviously has/had descended is incorrect.
So, B,C,D are eliminated.
However between A and E, E is marginally better because of two things:
1. That suggests that in A sounds horrible.
2. E maintains “that” parallelism. (however the "second that" in A which apparently seems to be missing is not absolutely essential.)
E is the correct answer
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2010, 10:56
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Hey Mainhoon,

Well, "evidence to suggest" is a better choice than "evidence that suggests," but I'd say the comma is the major issue.

As for Munda's question, no it wouldn't be quite as correct to say "the elephant has descended," this implies the action of descending, as in "The elephant has descended the stairs." But this meaning of "descended" is different. To "be descended" from something is a constant (like being "green" or "American"), and thus ought to be in the present tense, as in "Men are descended from apes." You wouldn't say "men have descended from apes," because it isn't a tense action, but a state of being.

Hope that makes sense!

-t
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2010, 23:43
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This one was tricky.

Sorry its E.

Observations -
1. I see "evidence that" is broken here. But that's not what the question is checking. I should be able to connect the underlined part with the rest of the sentence.

2. The SC is checking for that || ism

Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal. and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving >>> descended and evolving are awkward. OUT

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving

same as A. OUT

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolved

this means that elephant descended before its trunk evolved. OUT

(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved

same as D. OUT

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

This means that elephant descended from aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel. this looks alright. Especially its not doing any sequencing between the two past events

evidence...... that and that ..... -----> that || ism
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2013, 16:56
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targetgmatchotu wrote:
Anyone with the idiom of "Evidence" that/to


Hi there,

e-gmat team wishes you a very Happy New Year.

The idioms "evidence that", "evidence to" and "evidence of" are correct. The correctness of their usage depends on the way a particular senetnce has been written.

Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(a) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
(b) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(c)suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(d) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(e) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

The answer choices with "evidence that" has some grammatical issue. Only choice E is the grammatically correct. This is the reason why here use of "evidence to" is correct.

Now take a look at this GMAT Prep question:

Astronomers have uncovered evidence that a star that was as bright as the full moon exploding into view 340,000 years ago, emitting dazzling radiation that could have disrupted Earth's protective ozone layer and sunburned our Stone Age ancestors.

A) that a star that was as bright as the full moon exploding into view 340,000 years ago, emitting
B) that a star as bright as the full moon exploded into view 340,000 years ago, emitting
C) of a star that was as bright as the full moon exploding into view 340,000 years ago and that it emitted
D) of a star as bright as the full moon, exploding into view 340,000 years ago and emitting
E) of a star as bright as the full moon that exploded into view 340,000 years ago and that emitted

The correct answer of this sentence is choice B where the uasge of the idiom "evidence that" is correct. This is so because all the other choices have some grammatical error.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2014, 09:48
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SidKaria wrote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
B. that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
C. suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
D. to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
E. to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

Spoiler: :: Explanation
a) incorrect- parallel clauses start with the same word."that" is missing in the 2nd clause.
can u please explain me how" is descended" correct ? why do we need "is" ??
and why" descended from an aquatic animal " is incorrect. dont understand why if we remove "is" we are only left with a modifier.(as per one of the earlier explanation) descended from an aquatic animal is a modifier. so is descended here not a verb ??
eg.humans evolved from apes. here evolved is a verb.
please explain.

b)incorrect- has-incorrect verb. simnple past tense should be used. only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning. it seems that aquatic animal's trunk evoved.


c)incorrect- with after aquatic animals modifies the animals. distorts meaning.
had is incorrect verb.
(according to one of the explanations to this question "had descended" changes the intended meaning ) the meaning of descend here becomes"to pass from higher to lower") please explain.

d) same errors. has-incorrect verb. and no "that"

e)correct.


please help.


Hi Sid,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

So let's take your doubts in the order you have posted them.

Choice A: Yes, your analysis is correct that we need another "that" to maintain parallelism in the sentence.

Now, use of "is descended" is correct because it denotes that the elephants have evolved from a water animal. We need "is" because this event is a universal fact. This fact holds true for all time in the past, present, and future. When want to convey that someone has come from certain ancestor or ancestry, we use "is/was descended" depending on the context of the usage.

In this choice, "is descended" together is a verb. But in Choice B, "descended" appears to be a modifier because "that" is missing after "has suggested". The way Choice B is worded, it seems to convey that the evidence has suggested the elephant itself and not something about elephant. In such a structure, "descended" seems to be a modifier rather than a verb. Even if used as a verb, "descended" would not be correct as it would give a complete different meaning.

Choice B: You have said that "only a comma between the two clauses distorts the meaning". What lies after comma is not clause as it does not have a verb. This choice is incorrect for the usage of "has suggested the elephant". Also now the choice does not say that the evidence suggests two things.

Choice C: As I have already mentioned, when we want to denote that something has come from an ancestor or ancestry, we use "is/was descended". Any other verb form changes the meaning of the word. The verb "has descended" means it has literally come down from an elevated point.

Choice D: Your analysis of this choice is correct.

Choice E: This choice rectifies all the errors and is the correct one.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2017, 18:01
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Quote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.


(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
The sentence is trying to tell us that the evidence suggests two things: 1) that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and 2) that the elephant's trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel; in order to avoid a parallelism issue, we would have to change, "..., and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel" to "and that its trunk evolved as a kind of snorkel." Furthermore, this sentence has a string of relative clauses ("evidence that suggests that the elephant...", and the GMAT considers it "awkward and confusing to string together relative clauses." For these two reasons, choice A can be eliminated.

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
The simple present tense ("suggests") should be used instead of the present perfect tense ("has suggested") because we are describing a present action (what is the evidence currently doing?) and not referring to what the evidence was doing in the past. Present perfect is typically used to describe how long an action has been going on, for example, "For the past 100 years, most evidence has suggested (present perfect) that the elephant is descended from a land animal; however, new evidence suggests (simple present) that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal." Furthermore, a past tense should be used instead of "evolving" because we are talking about a past action (how the trunk evolved in the past, not how it is evolving now), so choice B can be eliminated.

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
This choice can easily be eliminated because the past perfect ("had descended") is not the appropriate tense (we do not have two past actions occurring at different times). Also, a past tense should be used instead of "evolving" (see choice B notes).

(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
Again, the past perfect ("had descended") is not the appropriate tense. Also, this choice contains a parallelism issue ("its trunk originally evolving..." is not parallel to "that the elephant had descended.."), and a past tense should be used instead of "evolving" (see choice B notes).

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
Here the infinitive "to suggest" is properly used as an adjective to modify "evidence". This choice also avoids parallelism issues ("suggest that the elephant is descended... and that its trunk originally evolved..."). The predicate adjective "descended" follows the linking verb "is" and properly modifies "the elephant". This might not sound right because we are used to hearing "descend" used as a verb (ie "I descended a flight a stairs."), but you shouldn't trust your ear when analyzing SC problems! Choice E is correct.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2018, 08:56
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I love the breakdown, AsadAbu!

Hey, taking a couple steps back there's a good deal to learn here. A couple points for you:

1) Remember that clarity of meaning is a big emphasis with the error types that the GMAT tests. And here that extra "that" is there to make the meaning crystal clear, that the "and" connects two things that the evidence suggests:

We've found evidence that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal *and* that (the elephant's) trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

Without that extra "that" it's easy for the reader to see two nouns separated by "and" and see them both as objects, both as things that the elephant descended from. For example, if I were to say "DNA tests suggests that I descended from Irish immigrants and my wife's family is from Sweden" - here you can read it as I descended from two family tree branches (Irish immigrants and my wife's family, which would be a little unnerving) or that two groups (me and my wife's family) have taken DNA tests. (Then the portion "is from Sweden" stands as a fragment, but it makes you go back and re-read to unpack which two things are connected by "and" and that slows the reader down and causes confusion). A "that" after "and" makes it clear that DNA tests suggest two things - one about me and one about my wife's family.

ALSO note that in the SC problem we're talking about there's an "its" right after "and" in some choices. This is another place where clarity can be very helpful. Does "its" mean "the elephant's" or "an aquatic animal's"? With the "that" in place in choice (E), it makes it parallel with "the elephant's":

Evidence suggests 1) that the elephant... and 2)that its

That parallelism signals that both portions of "the evidence suggests" are about the elephant, thereby removing potential confusion about what "its" refers to.

2) So keep in mind that parallel structures in these kinds of constructions exists to ensure clear meanings particularly when you have lots of nouns in a sentence and a tiny connector like "and" or "or" (and potentially some pronouns, too). Parallel structure isn't just a random piece of grammar that the GMAT arbitrarily decided to test - the GMAT tests it because it adds a "reading comprehension" logical component to SC. Which brings me to:

3) One place we love teaching students to look for decision points on SC is anywhere you see a coordinating conjunction (and, or, but, etc.) followed by a structural word like "that," "which," "to," etc. Those are great signals that you're likely dealing with a parallel structure issue, and help point you back to the other parallel structural word - if I see "and that" I'm immediately going back to find a previous "that" so that I can investigate for parallelism and clarity of meaning. If I see "or which" it's the same thing...where's that other "which" so that i can assess? Sometimes (like here) those construction show up in an answer choice, but other times they appear far from the underlined portion. And *that's* where they can be all the more crucial (I'm struggling to find a link to my favorite example of this but I'll grab it and drop it in here via edit function).
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2017, 07:36
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Quote:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

We use simple present tense to show a habit, a fact, or a general information. So use of 'is' is correct here because that fact is still true in the current context.


Correct. Present tense is kind of weird in English: it indicates a general characteristic. And sure, it works here: the elephant is, as a general characteristic, descended from an aquatic mammal. (Apparently. Frankly, I'd love to see an elephant swim. I splashed around in a river with one once, but she wasn't actually swimming.)

Quote:
If we use present perfect (has/have+ present participle), it would show that elephants descended from ........but this information is not true anymore.


I'm not quite sure what you're referring to in this part. Present perfect (has/have + participle) is used for actions that started in the past, but continue into the present. We could say something like "elephants have evolved from fish", and I think that's OK, since you could argue that elephants started evolving in the past, and are still evolving. But I'm not sure if that answers your question...?

Quote:
I am unable to figure out the difference between 'to suggest' and 'that suggest'.

Heh heh. Yeah, this part is tricky. I can tell you what the GMAT is thinking in this particular case: they really don't like the use of two consecutive clauses starting with "that" ("evidence that suggests that the elephant...") here. Fair enough.

But the tricky part is that I don't want to overgeneralize based on this example -- there's no single rule that will help you figure out when to use "to" and when to use "that." I guess we could say that the GMAT prefers the idiom "evidence to suggest that X occurs" over "evidence that suggests that X occurs"... but you won't see this exact issue very often.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2018, 03:17
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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving

(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving

In A and B, "evolving suggests that it is evolving right now. This is not what we want. Eliminate a and b.

(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolved
with cannot be followed by an independent clause

(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved
The phrases are not parallel.

(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved
The phrases are parallel now and convey a precise meaning.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2019, 06:49
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shabuzen102 wrote:
Dear AjiteshArun,

I have problem with "evolved". I was wondering how "descended" and "evolved" could be parallel. One is "to be descended from" (present tense) and the other is "evolved" (past tense) - how can they be parallel?

Moreover, I don't understand the idiom "to evolve as", especially "to originally evolve as." Doesn't it mean "evolve from" a kind of snorkel? So the snorkel is its state BEFORE or AFTER the act of evolving? I also have a problem with the addition of the word "originally." Doesn't "originally" mean "from the very beginning", which implies that later on it "evolved as (?)" something else (that's not a snorkel)?

I'm very confused about this question. Please help explain. Thanks!
Hi shabuzen102,

There are two elements connected by an and here, but we cannot insist that the verbs in those elements have the same tense.

that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal
and
that its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

Whether we go for the past tense or the present tense is entirely a matter of meaning. For example, we cannot switch to evolves here, as that would imply that the trunk of the elephant regularly "evolves" as a kind of snorkel. Similarly, we cannot switch to was descended, as that part of the sentence introduces information about the elephant that is still true.

Evolved as a snorkel does not mean "from a snorkel". From a snorkel would mean that there was a snorkel there already and that snorkel "led to" the trunk. Evolved as a snorkel actually means the trunk (originally) evolved to fulfill the function of a snorkel. A somewhat similar example:

He originally worked as a translator. ← His first role. Note how this does not mean that he worked as a translator from the very first moment of his life.

The trunk originally evolved as a snorkel. ← The first function of the trunk was to help the animal breathe when it was under water.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2019, 21:52
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If I have understood your query in the right perspective, both 'evidence to suggest' and 'evidence that suggests' mean the same thing. In both cases 'evidence' is the agent that is the doer of the action that follows in the form of either an infinitive 'to suggest' or a relative clause 'that suggests/suggested'. In essence, the noun 'evidence' is the object of the verb 'found' and the rest is all a modifier phrase that modifies the noun 'evidence'.

We can see a large number of examples of these kinds of infinitive usage

Jill advised Jack not to dance on the mountain trail.

Kohli asked the fieldsmen to hit the stumps with every ball they stopped.

Judge Bonham denied a motion to allow members of the jury to go home at the end of each day rather than be confined to a hotel (official example)
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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The answer choice I picked was E:

A. "That suggests that" is very wordy. Also, parallelism is broken here because "that the elephant..." is not parallel to "its trunk..."

B. The modifier "its trunk originally evolving" seems to be modifying the aquatic animal and not the elephant.

C. The use of the past perfect tense is incorrect. Today, the elephant is still a descendant of these aquatic animals, so past perfect tense doesn't make sense.

D. The use of the past perfect tense is incorrect. Also, parallelism is broken because the first clause "that the elephant..." is not parallel to "its trunk originally..."

E. This answer choice presents the clauses after "to suggest" in parallel and uses the correct verb tense "is descended."
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2014, 02:20
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What would u say when u want to mean ancestry r lineage?
He/she is a descendant of XYZ. Is descendant is nothing but that. On the contrary when u say he/she descended from XYZ it would mean going down. Also if u do Poe.
A. Evidence that suggest that is a bit redundant plus comma and sets an independent clause here which is not appropriate here.
B. Evolving is not correct , u have to understand that the embryologists suggested two things and each should have a. Verb.
C. Subject verb issue
D.has descended again would mean gone down. Plus this is a reporting structure you need Another that after and to maintain parallelism.
E. Correct. Proper parallelism maintained subject verb issue resolved.

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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2014, 23:10
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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.
A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved

B. that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving -> Descended -> Coming down -> Wrong

C. suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving -> no point to use Past perfect
D. to suggest that the elephant has descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved -> The action of descending is still continuing.

E. to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

A. that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
For A)
Australian embryologists have found evidence that
Suggests that
the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal
, and
its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

Now I am confused where does "its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel." sentence connects to?
Does it connect to
Australian embryologists have found evidence that its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel. -> Complete Non sense
or
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that its (elephants) trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel -> This make sense.

Whereas Option E) is correct and there is no confusion.
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New post 16 Jan 2016, 18:30
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https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t7211.html

I think the above link at MGMAT that discussed this topic from top to bottom in nine pages, with explanations from the entire brigade of the MGMAT, should be of help
Probably because, a past tense reference may erroneously lead to the impression that the elephant of today is not a descendant of the past event.
For instance, we don’t say: My grandfather who is no more, was an Indian. We still say, my grandfather is an Indian. Truly, ancestry pervades through ages.
In the second case, probably because, while the trunk is still there solidly, the development as a snorkel is a completed process.
Beyond this meek explanation, I think you should go through the MGMAT thread to see the spirited defense of MGMAT on this.
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New post 10 Apr 2017, 03:20
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Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved as a kind of snorkel.

(A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolved
(B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving
(C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolving
(D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolving
(E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

One useful thing to remember in this context is the difference in meaning between is descended and has descended. Is descended is a linking or extant verb that denotes a state of being. There is no action involved in it. On the other hand, 'has descended' means going down effortfully as in descending from the top floor to the ground floor. There is an action involved in it. 'Is descended' is mostly used in genealogy and genetics, in which we refer to some traits that are derived from their ancestors. This knowledge will help us to get rid of B, C, and D. Now between A and E, it will not be difficult to dislodge A for using missing the 'that' //ism. It is E.
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Re: Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the el   [#permalink] 10 Apr 2017, 03:20

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