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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women

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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.


(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed

(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 118: Sentence Correction


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Originally posted by alimad on 09 Oct 2007, 09:01.
Last edited by Bunuel on 05 Nov 2018, 08:25, edited 6 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: QOTD: Based on records from ancient Athens  [#permalink]

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This (bleeping) question is one of my all-time favorites, just because it features a whole bunch of grammar and usage issues that are simultaneously difficult and "learnable." Sometimes, it's really tough to get better at SC questions that test meaning, so it's satisfying when we can take a hard question like this one, and break it down methodically -- without any real need to worry about the subtleties of meaning.

We'll eventually have to deal with some funky parallelism stuff here (as featured in our YouTube webinar on parallelism and meaning), but the first thing that should catch your eye is that "-ed" modifier right at the beginning of the sentence. (More on "-ed" words here.) In this case, "based on records from ancient Athens" must be followed by something that can actually be based on records from ancient Athens. So...

Quote:
(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

Wait, this is literally saying that "each year young Athenian women" are based on records from ancient Athens. That makes no sense at all. A conclusion or a finding or a report could be "based on records", but the women themselves certainly can't be. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress

(B) has exactly the same error as (A): the young women can't be "based on records." You can eliminate (B) based on that alone.

Hopefully, the past perfect tense phrase "had collaborated" catches your eye, too. As you probably know, the action in past perfect tense has to logically precede some other "time marker" in the past -- generally, another action in simple past tense. So this particular sentence is saying that the women first "had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe"; the subsequent actions in simple past are "they used to dress a statue" and "this robe depicted scenes." I suppose that they collaborated before they used the robe to dress a statue, but I think it's awfully weird to say that they "had collaborated" first, and then the robe later "depicted scenes."

You don't really need to waste your energy on the past perfect tense in (B), but for whatever it's worth, it certainly doesn't seem right.

Quote:
(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

I think I can live with the use of "according to records from ancient Athens" in this case, even though I don't love it. I think that particular "-ing" phrase is modifying the entire clause that follows ("...young women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe..."), and I guess it's OK to say that this action is something we know "according to records from ancient Athens." I've never been totally convinced by it, but wouldn't immediately eliminate (A). (More on the GMAT's use of "-ing" words here.)

The real issue with (C) is the parallelism. And it's tricky, so bear with me here.

Whenever you're looking at parallelism, start with the parallelism "trigger" -- usually an "and" or an "or", though there are others. (The other triggers are a long story that we'll save for another day.) Then you'll always want to find the thing that follows the word "and", and then figure out what's parallel to that thing.

So in this case, we have: "and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants." Something HAS to be parallel to "that this robe depicted scenes." In (C), our only option is "that they used to dress a statue." Cool, we have structural parallelism.

Trouble is, it makes no sense when you actually think about the "stem" that precedes the two parallel elements. If you want, you can think of parallelism as a list of two (or more) items, and the "stem" is the thing that precedes the first item in the list. But the stem HAS to make sense with EVERY item in the list.

If we break down (C) really carefully, we have the following:

  • Stem: "...young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe..."
  • List item #1: "...that they used to dress a statue..."
  • List item #2 (after "and"): "...that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..."

The first item works just fine with the stem: "...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue..." No problem. But that "stem" also has to make sense with the second item. And in this case, it really doesn't work: "...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe... that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..." Huh? That's absolute nonsense.

This is what tough parallelism looks like on the GMAT. You can't "hear" the parallelism error at all -- or at least I can't. But if you break the parallelism down methodically, (C) is clearly wrong.

(Does your brain hurt yet? If you prefer video, our YouTube webinar on parallelism and meaning covered this question, too.)

Quote:
(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed

(D) cleans up the parallelism nicely! Using the same technique as in (C), we have the following:

  • Stem: "Records from ancient Athens indicate..."
  • List item #1: "...that each year young women collaborated to weave a new robe..."
  • List item #2 (after "and"): "...that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..."

That works! "Records indicate... that this robe depicted scenes of battle..." Great. Keep (D).


Quote:
(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing

In (E), we still have the same past perfect tense issue that appear in (B). Plus, the parallelism is completely wrong: the trigger "and" is still followed by "that this robe depicted scenes of battle...", but there are no phrases that could possibly be parallel, since there are no subordinate clauses beginning with "that" elsewhere in the sentence.

So (E) is gone, and (D) is our winner.

And if you read this far, you deserve a cookie for surviving to the end of the longest freaking QOTD explanation I've ever written. :oops:
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2010, 00:36
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Let's look at second part of the sentence: "and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena’s father, and giants."

First part of the sentence should be parallel - it should also contain "that" clause.

It's obvious that only (D) makes the sentence parallel:

Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena’s father, and giants.

Both "that" clauses serve as objects of the main clause, they describe the things that are indicated by ancient Athenian records.

Furthermore, (A) and (B) should not be considered as correct answers because both of them begin with dangling modifiers - "Based on records from ancient Athens" - what is based on records? There is no appropriate noun following after
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2008, 20:14
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It is D.
C is not parallel: "Robe that they used to dress" and "that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..." are not parellel.
D has parellel structure: Records indicate that women collaborated... and (records indicate) that this robe depicted...
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2012, 18:36
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C violates parallelism since it is records that indicates " " in the second part of the sentence. D wins for brevity and conciseness over C
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2012, 14:41
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maybeam wrote:
Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress
(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress
(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress
(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed
(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing

Quote:
I need some suggestion as to why C is wrong


Dear maybeam,
I'm happy to toss in my 2 cents here. :-)

I agree with what rajmatthew said----
1) because we have the "that this robe . . ." clause at the end of the sentence, we need a parallel clause of something indicated by the ancient records. (D) has a parallel "indicate that" clause, but (C) structures the first part of the sentence without "that", so there's no parallelism
2) (D) is direct and concise, what the GMAT loves

I would also add:

(C) ... a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue ...
(D) ...a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue ...

Think about these structured rearranged as independent clauses
(C') They used a new woolen robe to dress the statue.
(D') They dressed the statue with a new woolen robe.

The first is clumsy --- the active verb is "used", and the action of dressing is relegated to the infinitive. In the second, the active verb is "dressed", which is the literal action taking place. If you think about the people there doing what they are doing, what verb best describes that activity --- "using" or "dressing"? Clearly, they are dressing the statue. The active verb in the sentence should reflect the activity of the real people engaged in the event.

Does this make sense? Please let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike :-)
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2013, 20:52
Can somebody help me on why the parallelism in option C is wrong??
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New post 03 Sep 2013, 09:12
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Can somebody help me on why the parallelism in option C is wrong??

Dear gmatter0913,
I'm happy to help. :-)

First of all, parallelism is not only the problem with (C). It's just an awkward nightmare on a few levels.

Here's the parallelism problem. First, look at the OA. Choice (D), the OA, has parallel "that" clauses:

Records from ancient Athens indicate
//that each year ... goddess Athena
and
//that this robe ... giants.
The two "that" clause are both things indicted by the ancient records.

Now, compare this to (C) ----- one "that" clause describes the robe(" ... a new woolen robe that they used to ...), and the other is telling us an event that happened ---- it would be an object of the verb "indicate", if that verb appeared in (C); as it stands, it's not exactly clear what the role of this "that" clause is. Those two "that" clauses are not even pretending to do the same thing, so they are not parallel.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2013, 21:49
Thanks Mike for your reply.

Mike, Could it also be that option C is wrong because of the presence of 'this robe' in the second 'that clause'? (described below)

Option C
C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

If option C were to be correct, then I thought it has to be as below.

C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that (robe) depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

As the non-underlined part is having the additional "this robe", we can deduce that the second "that" cannot be used to mean "robe" as in option C.

Do you think this line of reasoning is correct?
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2013, 10:00
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Thanks Mike for your reply.

Mike, Could it also be that option C is wrong because of the presence of 'this robe' in the second 'that clause'? (described below)

Option C
C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

If option C were to be correct, then I thought it has to be as below.

C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that (robe) depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

As the non-underlined part is having the additional "this robe", we can deduce that the second "that" cannot be used to mean "robe" as in option C.

Do you think this line of reasoning is correct?

Yes, the sentence would be correct of both "that" clauses were in parallel as noun-modifiers, modifying "robe" -----
According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe
//that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena
and
//that depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants
There, each "that" is a subordinate conjunction, introducing a subordinate clause that modifies the noun "robe".

If we include the word "robe", then the word "that" is merely a noun-modifier modifying robe, and we get two independent clauses ---
According to records from ancient Athens,
(Independent clause #1) each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena
and
(Independent clause #2) that robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants

Either of those is 100% grammatically correct.

This is why, in the non-underlined part, the GMAT is very careful to specify ---- and that this robe depicted .... this "that" clause is a substantive clause, a clause that acts as a noun. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/substantiv ... -the-gmat/
A noun can only have one demonstrative modifier --- we can say "this robe" or "that robe", but if we say "that this robe", the first "that" can't be a noun-modifier modifying robe, so it has play another role. The word "that" has a bewildering number of roles. Here, it is as a subordinate conjunction, introducing a substantive clause.

A substantive clause doesn't make sense just standing by itself in a sentence ---- it needs to be either a subject of some verb, or it needs to be the direct object of some cognitive/informational verb --- to think, to say, to believe, to know, to indicate, etc.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2014, 08:17
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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

Does the ver-ed modifier make sense?
Lets do this test.
Logically, Subject,modifier, rest of the sentence should make sense.
So each year young Athenian women,Based on records from ancient Athens,collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - Doesn't make sense. Women is based on records.


(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - Incorrect
(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress - Incorrect
(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - Incorrect
that is wrong here. that is acting as a relative pronoun and that points to "robe". So it sounds as if it is robe that women used to dress.
(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed - Looks good.
(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing - Incorrect

Records from ancient Athens indicate
Records -> Subject
Indicate -> verb
Where is the object? that is required..
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2014, 11:53
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In this sentence non-underlined portion is holding the key hint to right option. I have highlighted the key below. One should try to understand the nature of highlighted portion and then compare it to the nature of parallel that clause in underlined part. Are they parallel ? No. in underlined part that they used is modifying noun rob, but in non-underlined part that this robe is presenting a independent idea; it is not modifying rob. Therefore we should look for a answer in which these natures are also parallel.

C may appear parallel ... ahha.. that.... and that.. parallel, but as mentioned above their function is not parallel and so they are not parallel.
In D nature of that ... and that... is same both stating an independent idea. both parts are logically parallel as well.

Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

A. Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

B. Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress

C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

D. Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed

E. Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2016, 19:42
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amitanand wrote:
Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the godtdess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena’s father, and giants.
A. Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress
B. Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress
C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress
D. Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed
E. Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing



'That' in non underlined part indicates that there must be 'that' in underlined portion also to make the sentence parallel. A, B and E are out

C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress. The parallelism is between- ' weave a woolen robe that they used to dress and that this robe depicted' does not make sense.

D. Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed. The parallelism is between- ' record indicate that women collaborated to weave a robe and that this robe depicted. iIt indicates two things that are mentioned in ancient records. Correct option
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 18:59
mikemcgarry wrote:
gmatter0913 wrote:
Thanks Mike for your reply.

Mike, Could it also be that option C is wrong because of the presence of 'this robe' in the second 'that clause'? (described below)

Option C
C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

If option C were to be correct, then I thought it has to be as below.

C. According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that (robe) depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

As the non-underlined part is having the additional "this robe", we can deduce that the second "that" cannot be used to mean "robe" as in option C.

Do you think this line of reasoning is correct?

Yes, the sentence would be correct of both "that" clauses were in parallel as noun-modifiers, modifying "robe" -----
According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe
//that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena
and
//that depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants
There, each "that" is a subordinate conjunction, introducing a subordinate clause that modifies the noun "robe".

If we include the word "robe", then the word "that" is merely a noun-modifier modifying robe, and we get two independent clauses ---
According to records from ancient Athens,
(Independent clause #1) each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena
and
(Independent clause #2) that robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants

Either of those is 100% grammatically correct.

This is why, in the non-underlined part, the GMAT is very careful to specify ---- and that this robe depicted .... this "that" clause is a substantive clause, a clause that acts as a noun. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/substantiv ... -the-gmat/
A noun can only have one demonstrative modifier --- we can say "this robe" or "that robe", but if we say "that this robe", the first "that" can't be a noun-modifier modifying robe, so it has play another role. The word "that" has a bewildering number of roles. Here, it is as a subordinate conjunction, introducing a substantive clause.

A substantive clause doesn't make sense just standing by itself in a sentence ---- it needs to be either a subject of some verb, or it needs to be the direct object of some cognitive/informational verb --- to think, to say, to believe, to know, to indicate, etc.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hey Mike,

I have a question about this - if you dont mind clearing things up!

Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

I a going to focus only on the points of interest - and was wondering if we can use TENSE amonst parallelism to eliminate C here since in the non-underlined portion after the AND we have depicted in the past tense, or we must match this to the first part:

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress
(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed


Is this proper analysis?

Thanks.
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New post 22 Jun 2016, 11:04
GMATDemiGod wrote:
Hey Mike,

I have a question about this - if you dont mind clearing things up!

Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

I a going to focus only on the points of interest - and was wondering if we can use TENSE amonst parallelism to eliminate C here since in the non-underlined portion after the AND we have depicted in the past tense, or we must match this to the first part:

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress
(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed


Is this proper analysis?

Thanks.

Dear GMATDemiGod,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

1) Verbs in parallel do NOT have to match in tense, even if they have the same subject. In fact, one could be active and one passive. See:
GMAT Grammar Rules: Parallelism and Verb Tenses
For the purposes of establishing proper parallelism, verb tense doesn't matter at all.

2) Both "used to dress" and "dressed" are past tense. In the former, you highlighted "dress" in the infinitive, which technically is tense-less.

Does all this help?
Mike :-)
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Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2016, 20:35
mikemcgarry

Thanks Mike for the step by step explanation.

The word "with which they..." made me reject the option D. Can you share some insights how to handle these problems, especially where ambiguous word formation (not common) comes in place. I have seen your earlier SC explanations where these word formations were sometimes correct or wrong.
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New post 08 Nov 2016, 15:50
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ankitmining wrote:
mikemcgarry

Thanks Mike for the step by step explanation.

The word "with which they..." made me reject the option D. Can you share some insights how to handle these problems, especially where ambiguous word formation (not common) comes in place. I have seen your earlier SC explanations where these word formations were sometimes correct or wrong.

Dear ankitmining,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

The word "which" is a relative pronoun. Other examples are "who," "what," and "that." A relative pronoun begins a relative clause, which is a kind of subordinate or dependent clause, and the relative pronoun plays a role in that clause. Within the action of the relative clause, the relative pronoun could be the subject, the direct object, or the object of a proposition.

As a subject of the relative clause:
This is my friend who plays the violin.
I have a car that gets good gas mileage.

As a direct object of the relative clause:
This is my friend whom the conductor said was the violinist in the city.
I have a car that my neighbor wants to buy.
Notice that the pronoun "who," like the personal pronouns "he" and "she," changes case with different grammatical roles.

As the object of a prepositional phrase within the relative clause:
This is my friend to whom the music award was given.
This is my friend from whom I learned about classical music.
I have a car with which my neighbor is infatuated.
I have a car to which my neighbor refers in a poem.

All of these are structures you will see in sophisticated reading. I highly recommend the habit of reading so that you learn all these structures. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: QOTD: Based on records from ancient Athens  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2017, 13:04
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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - modifier error

(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress - modifier error

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - not parallel to other that clause.

(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed - parallel structure. that followed by a noun.

(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing - wordy

Ans D
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Re: QOTD: Based on records from ancient Athens  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2017, 19:48
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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - Illogical usage of based on - based on illogically modifies each year

(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress - Illogical usage of based on

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress - Parallelism issue - one "that" clause describes the robe and the other is telling us an event that happened

(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed - Correct

(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing - Parallelism issue


Answer D
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Re: QOTD: Based on records from ancient Athens  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2017, 05:19
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Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

reading the whole sentence we find that there is an "And that" parallelism in the second half of the sentence so we need a that in first half as well
so options without that can straight away eliminated

(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress : reading the sentence on whole "That" in the second part doesn't refer to the robe but in the first part "That" refers to the robe so they are not parallel

(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress

(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress : reading the sentence on whole "That" in the second part doesn't refer to the robe but in the first part "That" refers to the robe so they are not parallel

(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed :correct

(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing
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Re: QOTD: Based on records from ancient Athens   [#permalink] 05 Oct 2017, 05:19

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