GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 17 Aug 2019, 07:56

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 30 Aug 2018
Posts: 31
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Nov 2018, 03:43
I have a doubt. What does the pronoun 'They' refers in the option D
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4796
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Nov 2018, 04:30
Top Contributor
There is only one logical referent for the pronoun 'they' namely the 'Athenian women'; The other plural word 'records' doesn't fit in.
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 07 Aug 2018
Posts: 1
CAT Tests
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Jul 2019, 11:35
Hi ,

In option D , how did you find out the stem in the parallel structure.

Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants.

I thought these 2 are parallel structures.
they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes


But it is given that stem is "Records from ancient Athens indicate" which means "
that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted are the parallel entities.






GMATNinja wrote:
This (bleeping) question is one of my all-time favorites, just because it features a whole bunch of grammar and usage issues that are simultaneously difficult and "learnable." Sometimes, it's really tough to get better at SC questions that test meaning, so it's satisfying when we can take a hard question like this one, and break it down methodically -- without any real need to worry about the subtleties of meaning.


Quote:
(A) Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

Wait, this is literally saying that "each year young Athenian women" are based on records from ancient Athens. That makes no sense at all. A conclusion or a finding or a report could be "based on records", but the women themselves certainly can't be. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) Based on records from ancient Athens, young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which to dress

(B) has exactly the same error as (A): the young women can't be "based on records." You can eliminate (B) based on that alone.

Hopefully, the past perfect tense phrase "had collaborated" catches your eye, too. As you probably know, the action in past perfect tense has to logically precede some other "time marker" in the past -- generally, another action in simple past tense. So this particular sentence is saying that the women first "had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe"; the subsequent actions in simple past are "they used to dress a statue" and "this robe depicted scenes." I suppose that they collaborated before they used the robe to dress a statue, but I think it's awfully weird to say that they "had collaborated" first, and then the robe later "depicted scenes."

You don't really need to waste your energy on the past perfect tense in (B), but for whatever it's worth, it certainly doesn't seem right.

Quote:
(C) According to records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress

I think I can live with the use of "according to records from ancient Athens" in this case, even though I don't love it. I think that particular "-ing" phrase is modifying the entire clause that follows ("...young women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe..."), and I guess it's OK to say that this action is something we know "according to records from ancient Athens." I've never been totally convinced by it, but wouldn't immediately eliminate (A).
The real issue with (C) is the parallelism. And it's tricky, so bear with me here.

Whenever you're looking at parallelism, start with the parallelism "trigger" -- usually an "and" or an "or", though there are others. (The other triggers are a long story that we'll save for another day.) Then you'll always want to find the thing that follows the word "and", and then figure out what's parallel to that thing.

So in this case, we have: "and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus, Athena's father, and giants." Something HAS to be parallel to "that this robe depicted scenes." In (C), our only option is "that they used to dress a statue." Cool, we have structural parallelism.

Trouble is, it makes no sense when you actually think about the "stem" that precedes the two parallel elements. If you want, you can think of parallelism as a list of two (or more) items, and the "stem" is the thing that precedes the first item in the list. But the stem HAS to make sense with EVERY item in the list.

If we break down (C) really carefully, we have the following:

  • Stem: "...young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe..."
  • List item #1: "...that they used to dress a statue..."
  • List item #2 (after "and"): "...that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..."

The first item works just fine with the stem: "...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue..." No problem. But that "stem" also has to make sense with the second item. And in this case, it really doesn't work: "...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe... that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..." Huh? That's absolute nonsense.

This is what tough parallelism looks like on the GMAT. You can't "hear" the parallelism error at all -- or at least I can't. But if you break the parallelism down methodically, (C) is clearly wrong.

Quote:
(D) Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed

(D) cleans up the parallelism nicely! Using the same technique as in (C), we have the following:

  • Stem: "Records from ancient Athens indicate..."
  • List item #1: "...that each year young women collaborated to weave a new robe..."
  • List item #2 (after "and"): "...that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..."

That works! "Records indicate... that this robe depicted scenes of battle..." Great. Keep (D).


Quote:
(E) Records from ancient Athens indicate each year young Athenian women had collaborated to weave a new woolen robe for dressing

In (E), we still have the same past perfect tense issue that appear in (B). Plus, the parallelism is completely wrong: the trigger "and" is still followed by "that this robe depicted scenes of battle...", but there are no phrases that could possibly be parallel, since there are no subordinate clauses beginning with "that" elsewhere in the sentence.

So (E) is gone, and (D) is our winner.

And if you read this far, you deserve a cookie for surviving to the end of the longest freaking QOTD explanation I've ever written. :oops:
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Jul 2018
Posts: 55
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Jul 2019, 06:12
Trouble is, it makes no sense when you actually think about the "stem" that precedes the two parallel elements. If you want, you can think of parallelism as a list of two (or more) items, and the "stem" is the thing that precedes the first item in the list. But the stem HAS to make sense with EVERY item in the list.

If we break down (C) really carefully, we have the following:

  • Stem: "...young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe..."
  • List item #1: "...that they used to dress a statue..."
  • List item #2 (after "and"): "...that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..."

The first item works just fine with the stem: "...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue..." No problem. But that "stem" also has to make sense with the second item. And in this case, it really doesn't work: "...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe... that this robe depicted scenes of a battle..." Huh? That's absolute nonsense.

GMATNinja

Hello gmatninja could you please shed some light on the issue I have concerning the bolded part of your explanation?
Specifically, I do not understand the "test" that you conduct in order to check the parallelism, the stem is ...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe...
1) that they used to dress a statue <-- this is ok
2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle <-- here you mention that it does not make sense, however isn't it the same case with option D, again the stem is women collaborated to weave a new wooden robe... and the second item is "that this robe depicted scenes of a battle"

So I'm a little bit confused it might be something that I have understood completely wrong could you provide your assistance?
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2762
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Aug 2019, 12:12
1
Quote:
Hello gmatninja could you please shed some light on the issue I have concerning the bolded part of your explanation?
Specifically, I do not understand the "test" that you conduct in order to check the parallelism, the stem is ...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe...
1) that they used to dress a statue <-- this is ok
2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle <-- here you mention that it does not make sense, however isn't it the same case with option D, again the stem is women collaborated to weave a new wooden robe... and the second item is "that this robe depicted scenes of a battle"

So I'm a little bit confused it might be something that I have understood completely wrong could you provide your assistance?

The easiest way to evaluate this kind of parallel construction is to insert the second element in place of the first element, and see if the construction still makes sense. For example:

    "Tim believes that aliens are infiltrating his bedroom at night and that these aliens are inserting little pieces of cardboard into his ear canal.

If we substitute the highlighted piece in place of the first element, we'd have "Tim believes that these aliens are inserting little pieces of cardboard..." This is logical (grammatically). Tim believes two things: that aliens are infiltrating his room and that they are inserting cardboard in his head. So far so good. (If you've ever met Tim, you would know that the alien cardboard inside his head could plausibly explain many of his questionable decisions.)

Watch how seamlessly this works with (D):

    "Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus.."

If we place the second "that" clause in place of the first, we have: "Records from ancient Athens indicate that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..." Looks good. The records indicated two things: that the Athenian women collaborated and that the robe depicted scenes of a battle. Glorious.

Now try the same exercise with (C):

    "...each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..."

If we substitute the second "that" clause in place of the first, we'd have: "each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..." This is bad. This is very very bad, so bad that you probably don't have to spend a lot of time parsing why it's nonsense. So (C) is out.

I hope that helps!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Jul 2018
Posts: 55
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Aug 2019, 04:35
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
Hello gmatninja could you please shed some light on the issue I have concerning the bolded part of your explanation?
Specifically, I do not understand the "test" that you conduct in order to check the parallelism, the stem is ...women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe...
1) that they used to dress a statue <-- this is ok
2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle <-- here you mention that it does not make sense, however isn't it the same case with option D, again the stem is women collaborated to weave a new wooden robe... and the second item is "that this robe depicted scenes of a battle"

So I'm a little bit confused it might be something that I have understood completely wrong could you provide your assistance?

The easiest way to evaluate this kind of parallel construction is to insert the second element in place of the first element, and see if the construction still makes sense. For example:

    "Tim believes that aliens are infiltrating his bedroom at night and that these aliens are inserting little pieces of cardboard into his ear canal.

If we substitute the highlighted piece in place of the first element, we'd have "Tim believes that these aliens are inserting little pieces of cardboard..." This is logical (grammatically). Tim believes two things: that aliens are infiltrating his room and that they are inserting cardboard in his head. So far so good. (If you've ever met Tim, you would know that the alien cardboard inside his head could plausibly explain many of his questionable decisions.)

Watch how seamlessly this works with (D):

    "Records from ancient Athens indicate that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus.."

If we place the second "that" clause in place of the first, we have: "Records from ancient Athens indicate that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..." Looks good. The records indicated two things: that the Athenian women collaborated and that the robe depicted scenes of a battle. Glorious.

Now try the same exercise with (C):

    "...each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena and that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..."

If we substitute the second "that" clause in place of the first, we'd have: "each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus..." This is bad. This is very very bad, so bad that you probably don't have to spend a lot of time parsing why it's nonsense. So (C) is out.

I hope that helps!


Thanks a lot for the detailed explanation GMATNinja really appreciated, so if I understood well , we proceed like this...

D
Records from ancient Athens indicate 1)that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena (sounds good) 2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus (sounds good again)

On the other hand, in C
each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe 1) that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena (sounds good) 2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus (HORRIBLE) .
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2762
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Aug 2019, 14:00
UNSTOPPABLE12 wrote:
Thanks a lot for the detailed explanation GMATNinja really appreciated, so if I understood well , we proceed like this...

D
Records from ancient Athens indicate 1)that each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe with which they dressed a statue of the goddess Athena (sounds good) 2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus (sounds good again)

On the other hand, in C
each year young Athenian women collaborated to weave a new woolen robe 1) that they used to dress a statue of the goddess Athena (sounds good) 2) that this robe depicted scenes of a battle between Zeus (HORRIBLE) .

No problem, UNSTOPPABLE12! Your explanation hits the nail on the head. Nicely done.
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women   [#permalink] 11 Aug 2019, 14:00

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 27 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

Based on records from ancient Athens, each year young Athenian women

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne