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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that

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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective thinkers.


(A) if recognized and applied, students

(B) if these skills are recognized and applied, that students

(C) if students recognize and apply them, that they

(D) that if recognized and applied, students

(E) that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 1: Sentence Correction


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Originally posted by prasannar on 27 Jun 2008, 06:55.
Last edited by Bunuel on 15 Oct 2018, 02:41, edited 7 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2017, 09:11
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I always like to start with the most straightforward, mechanical stuff -- and in this case, the word "and" jumps off the page at me. Looks like a nice parallelism issue.

Quote:
Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize...


So here we have the first assumption, written in a "that + clause" format. Great, so we'll need a similar format -- "that + clause" -- after the "and" to complete the parallel structure.

Quote:
A. if recognized and applied, students
B. if these skills are recognized and applied, that students
C. if students recognize and apply them, that they


Unlike (D) and (E), none of these three options begin with "that + clause", so we can eliminate (A), (B), and (C). Plus, (A) is illogical: it seems to be telling us that the students are recognized and applied.

And for whatever it's worth, I'm not crazy about the pronouns in (C), either: "them" and "they" are right next to each other, but refer to different antecedents. That's not the end of the world, but it's not ideal.

On to (D) and (E):

Quote:
D. that if recognized and applied, students
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


(D) has exactly the same meaning issue as (A): if we think about (D) strictly and literally, it seems to be saying that students are "recognized and applied", and that doesn't make sense.

So I hope you like (E)! The parallelism is solid, and (E) also fixes the pronoun issue that we saw in (C): "them" has been replaced with "these skills", and that makes the sentence a little bit cleaner.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2010, 23:39
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Hi everybody,

The original sentence contains two errors:I) Parallelism & II) modifier.

I) Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly
identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply
appropriately, and (That required) if recognized and applied, students will become more effective
thinkers.

II) Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly
identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply
appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective
thinkers. - implies students are recognized and applied.

B. if these skills are recognized and applied, that students - out due to error I
C. if students recognize and apply them, that they- out due to error I
D. that if recognized and applied, students - out due to error II
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they

Correct option - E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2017, 09:38
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Is there a typo. "and" should be excluded from the underlined part.


IMO: E
To maintain parallelism:
Two assumptions: that X and that Y.
E is more elegant between D and E since it clearly shows that if skills are applied then outcome.
Also, construction: If <present>, then <future> is correct in E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 02:14
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Statement: that .......... and that .......

only E follows this construction

X and Y need to be parallel

in Option D

if students recognised?
recognised what? , there is a slight ambiguity and E fixes the ambiguity


E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 09:51
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they

how do we rule out that 'they' after comma doesn't refer to skills? we may say due to meaning. However, I always find it difficult to make such decisions when it comes to pick between meaning of a sentence and a rule. Could any expert please help how do we approach such scenarios with examples.Please!
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 10:23
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ManSab wrote:
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they

how do we rule out that 'they' after comma doesn't refer to skills? we may say due to meaning. However, I always find it difficult to make such decisions when it comes to pick between meaning of a sentence and a rule. Could any expert please help how do we approach such scenarios with examples.Please!

Hi ManSab, you are right. Technically speaking, they is an ambiguous pronoun, since it has two eligible antecedents: students and skills.

In such cases, the pronoun subject (in this case they) can be presumed to refer to noun subject (in this case students) of another clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the usage of ambiguous pronouns, its application and examples in significant detail. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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New post 15 May 2017, 14:05
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D. that if recognized and applied, students

D's main problem arises from a dangling modification. As such in D, the modifier, if recognized and applied, modifies the students, which is absurd. The genuine modified noun 'skills' is totally absent in the complex sentence. We have to bring the truly modified noun from outside. Therefore, D is defective in grammar.

Coming to E's supposed ambiguity, there is a simple rule of replacement to ascertain the true pronoun reference whether skills or students.

E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they will become better thinkers


1. that if students recognize and apply these skills, (they) skills will become better thinkers.
2. that if students recognize and apply these skills, (they) students will become better thinkers.
Now it might be clear which the genuine referent of 'they' is. In matters of pronoun reference, logic is the Supreme Court.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 10:17
daagh wrote:
D. that if recognized and applied, students

D's main problem arises from a dangling modification. As such in D, the modifier, if recognized and applied, modifies the students, which is absurd. The genuine modified noun 'skills' is totally absent in the complex sentence. We have to bring the truly modified noun from outside. Therefore, D is defective in grammar.

Coming to E's supposed ambiguity, there is a simple rule of replacement to ascertain the true pronoun reference whether skills or students.

E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they will become better thinkers


1. that if students recognize and apply these skills, (they) skills will become better thinkers.
2. that if students recognize and apply these skills, (they) students will become better thinkers.
Now it might be clear which the genuine referent of 'they' is. In matters of pronoun reference, logic is the Supreme Court.


In this sentence I got confused that the "that" AFTER COLON would distribute to both the assumptions as "and" is an open parallel marker. Can someone please help me to decide on this so that I dont make such future errors.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 13:11
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Quote:
Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective thinkers.


(A) if recognized and applied, students

(B) if these skills are recognized and applied, that students

(C) if students recognize and apply them, that they

(D) that if recognized and applied, students

(E) that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


singh

If you do not put a 'that' after and, then E will turn unparallel.

1. That there are clearly identifiable thinking skills those students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately --- this relative clause due to the introduction of 'that' in the beginning.

2. That if students recognize and apply these skills, they -- This is also a relative clause due to the word' 'that'. If you drop the word 'that', then the remaining sentence will become an independent complex sentence.

Can you cite the origin of the rule in which 'that' can be dropped after an 'and' in the second part
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 20:51
daagh wrote:
Quote:
Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective thinkers.


(A) if recognized and applied, students

(B) if these skills are recognized and applied, that students

(C) if students recognize and apply them, that they

(D) that if recognized and applied, students

(E) that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


singh

If you do not put a 'that' after and, then E will turn unparallel.

1. That there are clearly identifiable thinking skills those students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately --- this relative clause due to the introduction of 'that' in the beginning.

2. That if students recognize and apply these skills, they -- This is also a relative clause due to the word' 'that'. If you drop the word 'that', then the remaining sentence will become an independent complex sentence.

Can you cite the origin of the rule in which 'that' can be dropped after an 'and' in the second part


SIr, I cant cite a specific rule pertaining to the dropping of that. What I was referring to was a generic rule stated in Manhattan SC guide that if a open parallelism marker is used, the element before the parallel elements distributes to both the parallel elements. For eg
The railroad can lose more money or solve its problems. Here, can is distributed to both lose money and solve problems and is not required to be repeated.(example from Manhattan SC guide)

Drawing Analogy from the example, Shouldnt we avoid repeating that in this question?
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 09:07
AjiteshArun
Why that is necessary after and ?
Can't it be an ellipse ?
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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2019, 14:56
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Down to D & E since 'that' is missing in A,B,C

One more reason to choose E.

(D) that if recognized and applied, students
if + past --> students will (future) -- INCORRECT

(E) that if students recognize and apply these skills, they
if + present --> students will (future) - CORRECT
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2019, 02:50
GMATNinja wrote:
I always like to start with the most straightforward, mechanical stuff -- and in this case, the word "and" jumps off the page at me. Looks like a nice parallelism issue.

Quote:
Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize...


So here we have the first assumption, written in a "that + clause" format. Great, so we'll need a similar format -- "that + clause" -- after the "and" to complete the parallel structure.

Quote:
A. if recognized and applied, students
B. if these skills are recognized and applied, that students
C. if students recognize and apply them, that they


Unlike (D) and (E), none of these three options begin with "that + clause", so we can eliminate (A), (B), and (C). Plus, (A) is illogical: it seems to be telling us that the students are recognized and applied.

And for whatever it's worth, I'm not crazy about the pronouns in (C), either: "them" and "they" are right next to each other, but refer to different antecedents. That's not the end of the world, but it's not ideal.

On to (D) and (E):

Quote:
D. that if recognized and applied, students
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


(D) has exactly the same meaning issue as (A): if we think about (D) strictly and literally, it seems to be saying that students are "recognized and applied", and that doesn't make sense.

So I hope you like (E)! The parallelism is solid, and (E) also fixes the pronoun issue that we saw in (C): "them" has been replaced with "these skills", and that makes the sentence a little bit cleaner.



In option E, I thought "they" is ambiguous because it could refer to skills or students. How did you avoid this confusion?

Thanks
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2019, 00:30
azoz7 wrote:
In option E, I thought "they" is ambiguous because it could refer to skills or students. How did you avoid this confusion?

Thanks
It is not always possible to remove ambiguity, and many correct options use ambiguous pronouns.

We should try to check for the more "sure" concepts before taking a decision on the basis of pronoun ambiguity.
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New post 26 Jun 2019, 04:22
GMATNinja

Out of curiosity, is it possible to move "that" after the modifier in the second part of parallel list (like in Choice B)

Choice B sounds to me like the modifier is the on-going situation from assumption 1, and "that students..." introduce assumption 2.

Or I am thinking too much right now?

Thank you very much!
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New post 28 Jun 2019, 04:33
Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective thinkers.

1st split is between if and that.
Clearly to maintain parallelism that should be used. so eliminate a,b,c.
option d is wrong because eventhough it is maintaining parallalism, recognized and applied is modifying students whereas it should refer to skills.
E rectifies all these mistakes and there is no ambiguity in regard to they because there are two possibilities of antecedents for they. They are - students, skills. Only students makes sense in this case.

(A) if recognized and applied, students

(B) if these skills are recognized and applied, that students

(C) if students recognize and apply them, that they

(D) that if recognized and applied, students

(E) that if students recognize and apply these skills, they
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New post 28 Jun 2019, 07:17
parallelism is being tested here with 'and ' in the beginning and then 'that+clause' .So eliminate A,B and C. Between D and E, D has a meaning error and E is the only statement that has sense. hence E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2019, 03:40
Hi daagh GMATNinja egmat

Please correct me if I'm wrong.

In option D, incorrect usage of modifier didn't immediately struck me, however, I was able to eliminate it on the basis of Conditional If.

If recognized and applied (in the past), students would
That if students recognize and apply these skills, they will

Though, I know the modifier split is better.

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New post 27 Jul 2019, 05:06
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Vishnu

Just because the word 'if' is there, one cannot apply the tenets of conditional clauses automatically. The conditional clause rule applies only to a conditional clause that comprises conditional markers such as 'if' and more importantly a subject and a verb to make it a clause. For instance,

1. If they are recognized and applied, X will happen.
Here the first part is the conditional clause and the part after comma is the main clause. Now we can know what the tense of the clause is. This is conditional 1 structure.

On the contrary,
2. If recognized and applied, X will happen -- Here we do not have a conditional clause at the start. We have only a modifier phrase comprising a couple of past participles and the participles are only verbals with no indication of tense of their own.

For example, we can say as below and all of them are correct, as there is an identifiable conditional clause in each of them.

1. If they had been recognized and applied, X would have happened.

2. If they were recognized and applied, X would happen

3. If they are recognized and applied, X will happen

4. As such, " If recognized and applied' cannot be subjected to conditional clause rules.

Therefore, as you have rightly pointed out, one must rather go through the modifier split in this case.

Hope You see my point.
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