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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that

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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Oct 2018, 02:41
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Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective thinkers.


(A) if recognized and applied, students

(B) if these skills are recognized and applied, that students

(C) if students recognize and apply them, that they

(D) that if recognized and applied, students

(E) that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 1: Sentence Correction


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Originally posted by prasannar on 27 Jun 2008, 06:55.
Last edited by Bunuel on 15 Oct 2018, 02:41, edited 7 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2017, 09:11
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I always like to start with the most straightforward, mechanical stuff -- and in this case, the word "and" jumps off the page at me. Looks like a nice parallelism issue.

Quote:
Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize...


So here we have the first assumption, written in a "that + clause" format. Great, so we'll need a similar format -- "that + clause" -- after the "and" to complete the parallel structure.

Quote:
A. if recognized and applied, students
B. if these skills are recognized and applied, that students
C. if students recognize and apply them, that they


Unlike (D) and (E), none of these three options begin with "that + clause", so we can eliminate (A), (B), and (C). Plus, (A) is illogical: it seems to be telling us that the students are recognized and applied.

And for whatever it's worth, I'm not crazy about the pronouns in (C), either: "them" and "they" are right next to each other, but refer to different antecedents. That's not the end of the world, but it's not ideal.

On to (D) and (E):

Quote:
D. that if recognized and applied, students
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they


(D) has exactly the same meaning issue as (A): if we think about (D) strictly and literally, it seems to be saying that students are "recognized and applied", and that doesn't make sense.

So I hope you like (E)! The parallelism is solid, and (E) also fixes the pronoun issue that we saw in (C): "them" has been replaced with "these skills", and that makes the sentence a little bit cleaner.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2010, 23:39
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Hi everybody,

The original sentence contains two errors:I) Parallelism & II) modifier.

I) Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly
identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply
appropriately, and (That required) if recognized and applied, students will become more effective
thinkers.

II) Critical-thinking instruction is predicted on two assumptions: that there are clearly
identifiable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply
appropriately, and if recognized and applied, students will become more effective
thinkers. - implies students are recognized and applied.

B. if these skills are recognized and applied, that students - out due to error I
C. if students recognize and apply them, that they- out due to error I
D. that if recognized and applied, students - out due to error II
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they

Correct option - E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2017, 09:38
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Is there a typo. "and" should be excluded from the underlined part.


IMO: E
To maintain parallelism:
Two assumptions: that X and that Y.
E is more elegant between D and E since it clearly shows that if skills are applied then outcome.
Also, construction: If <present>, then <future> is correct in E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 02:14
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Statement: that .......... and that .......

only E follows this construction

X and Y need to be parallel

in Option D

if students recognised?
recognised what? , there is a slight ambiguity and E fixes the ambiguity


E
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 09:51
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they

how do we rule out that 'they' after comma doesn't refer to skills? we may say due to meaning. However, I always find it difficult to make such decisions when it comes to pick between meaning of a sentence and a rule. Could any expert please help how do we approach such scenarios with examples.Please!
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2017, 10:23
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ManSab wrote:
E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they

how do we rule out that 'they' after comma doesn't refer to skills? we may say due to meaning. However, I always find it difficult to make such decisions when it comes to pick between meaning of a sentence and a rule. Could any expert please help how do we approach such scenarios with examples.Please!

Hi ManSab, you are right. Technically speaking, they is an ambiguous pronoun, since it has two eligible antecedents: students and skills.

In such cases, the pronoun subject (in this case they) can be presumed to refer to noun subject (in this case students) of another clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the usage of ambiguous pronouns, its application and examples in significant detail. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2017, 14:05
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D. that if recognized and applied, students

D's main problem arises from a dangling modification. As such in D, the modifier, if recognized and applied, modifies the students, which is absurd. The genuine modified noun 'skills' is totally absent in the complex sentence. We have to bring the truly modified noun from outside. Therefore, D is defective in grammar.

Coming to E's supposed ambiguity, there is a simple rule of replacement to ascertain the true pronoun reference whether skills or students.

E. that if students recognize and apply these skills, they will become better thinkers


1. that if students recognize and apply these skills, (they) skills will become better thinkers.
2. that if students recognize and apply these skills, (they) students will become better thinkers.
Now it might be clear which the genuine referent of 'they' is. In matters of pronoun reference, logic is the Supreme Court.
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Re: Critical-thinking instruction is predicated on two assumptions: that  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 02:41
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