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Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that

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Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 08 Jun 2017, 18:22
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

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Question Stats:

56% (00:43) correct 44% (00:44) wrong based on 1700 sessions

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Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were

Could someone also explain what the difference is between A and C?

Thank,
jjhko

Originally posted by jjhko on 03 Sep 2006, 11:16.
Last edited by broall on 08 Jun 2017, 18:22, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 22:48
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8
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A, less than they did
Correct.
- "they" refers to "employment costs". (plural)
- "rose" || "did"
- less is comparative form of little. Costs: uncountable noun ==> "Less" is correct.

B, less than it did
Wrong. "it" is singular and is not parallel with "employment costs" - plural.

C, less than they were
Wrong."were" (auxiliary verb) is not parallel with "rose" (main verb)

D, lower than
Wrong.
Costs do not rise low/high (comparative forms are: lower/higher). The usage sounds awkward. Costs should rise little / much.
Please note that: lower is a comparative form of low. Lower is only be used with nouns that can be described as low. There is no clear rule for less/lower. Usually, you have to memorize the usage of less/lower for each situation. For example:
a low bridge
a low salary
a low water level
a low temperature
a low price

E, lower than they were
Wrong.
- The usage of "lower" is not correct.
- "were" (auxiliary verb) is not parallel with "rose" (main verb)

Hope it helps
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2006, 13:00
6
I think it is A

Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in september, slightly less than they
did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

If the sentence was:
Employment costs were 2.8 percent ...slightly less than they were would be right
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2010, 12:12
2
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were


In A --> replace they with employment costs and did with rose .... comparision looks fine so no issues.

and to your questions "lower than" --> slightly lower than <<what>> [you need a noun here for comparision]

so I would go with A.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2010, 13:26
2
1
acer2knight wrote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were


In A --> replace they with employment costs and did with rose .... comparision looks fine so no issues.

and to your questions "lower than" --> slightly lower than <<what>> [you need a noun here for comparision]

so I would go with A.

Also,

Between A & C,

'rose' is parallel to 'did' in A and is not parallel to 'were' in C

hence A.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2010, 04:30
1
Thanks for the reply. Kudos to all! :)

One follow-up question: I thought percent is countable and should be used with lower rather than less?

Thanks
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 22:50
for percents and fractions we use less not lower or fewer.
for time ,distance, money we use 'less'
for countable entities we use fewer

eg:fewer chocolates
less than $541
less than 3 weeks
less than 3 kms

Higher and lower we use for physical entities
The height of the chair is lower than that of the table.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 23:02
rainbooow wrote:
higher and lower we use for physical entities
The height of the chair is lower than that of the table.



Hi rainbooow

I absolutely agree with your explanation, but not the quote part. "higher and lower we use for physical entities"
For example: low price, low temperature, low music level, etc..

Regards.
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Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2013, 08:10
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Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

We can eliminate B because it uses "it" to refer back to "costs".

A- less than they did
C- less than they were
D- lower than
E- lower than they were


If we use "were", the sentence makes no sense:

Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in September, slightly less than they were in the year ...

We want to compare two rates; but this sentence compares a rate(costs rose up) to a static state (verb "to be": costs were)
Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in September, slightly less than they were(say 10,000$) in the year ...<== no sense comparison

C and E are out. D is not a complete comparison: "lower than (what?) in the year that ended ...". A is correct, and it compares how the costs rose (two growth rates):

Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did(=rose) in the year that ended in the previous quarter.
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Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2014, 16:34
2
Please remember ---Lower cannot be used with countable things.
Lower is used to compare numbers, rates, percentages,ranks, ideas ,uncountable nouns (amount of money in my bank account is lower than that in yours).etc

Here 'employment costs' is uncountable hence both less and lower could have worked but for using lower than we need some noun to follow the the comparison in the second part of the sentence...costs rose 2.8 percent lower than the percent for .. This isn't the case here. So we can drop D and E options.

Among A,B,C .
B is out since the plural costs does not agree with pronoun it
In option A and C --->Did vs Were .
A wins because we can't use were (option C) unless there was some other " to be"verb (was, were, am ,is ) to match/parallel it in the previous part of the sentence. Hence we use the action verb did (do)
Hope this helps.

For a more detailed discussion: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/emp ... t6388.html
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2014, 16:44
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calvinhobbes wrote:
Thanks for the reply. Kudos to all! :)

One follow-up question: I thought percent is countable and should be used with lower rather than less?

Thanks


Any noun you can count ..say 1,2..10..100 is countable
1 boy, 10 points, 5% , 20 chocolates, -all countable

Rice,Sugar, joy, taxes, amount of money, heat --all uncountable

But when you say :
1 kg sugar, 15 1$ bills, 15 degree celsius temperature --then it becomes countable.

Please NOTE : you cannot use lower with countable things.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2016, 18:31
If there were an answer "less than it had done", Could i consider it a more correct answer than the OA ??????
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2016, 02:48
thanhphong01 wrote:
If there were an answer "less than it had done", Could i consider it a more correct answer than the OA ??????


Tryambak's explanation above is nice. However I shall try to elaborate further on the topic:

You may use helping verbs later in a sentence to replace longer verbs or verb phrases used in the initial portion of the sentence.

Wordy: I have never played football, but he has played football.
Correct: I have never played football, but he has.

OR

Wordy: I never played football, but he played football.
Correct: I never played football, but he did.

Please note that in such cases both the instances of the verbs should generally have the same tense. The first example above uses past perfect..past perfect. The second uses simple past.. simple past.

Therefore "less than they had done" may not be a correct answer, and should be written as "less than they had risen".

Another subtle point to note:

Your observation that a past perfect is a better choice than a simple past (on the basis of that the previous action happened before the latter action) may not be correct - the rising in the year ended previous quarter did not happen exclusively before the year ended this September. To illustrate this scenario, please understand the following:

Year ended previous quarter: July, previous year----> June, this year (1st July, previous year to 30th June, this year)
Year ended this September: October,previous year ------> September, this year (1st October previous year to 30th September, this year)

There has been overlap of 9 months between the 2 periods compared - viz., October, previous year to June, this year (1st October, previous year to 30th June, this year). Therefore use of past perfect for the previous period is not correct.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2016, 00:57
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danzig wrote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.
A, less than they did
B, less than it did
C, less than they were
D, lower than
E, lower than they were

What is wrong with D? What is the difference between "less" and "lower"? :s

Thanks!


D is wrong because
d mean "Lower than cost rose in the year". this is infered from elipsis.
cost rose 2 percent this year lower than costs rose that year. wrong, lower can not used to compare actions.
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New post 26 Feb 2018, 21:07
Why can't we drop the verb(rose/did) and choose D as the right answer?We can omit verb in comparison.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2018, 23:12
techiesam wrote:
Why can't we drop the verb(rose/did) and choose D as the right answer?We can omit verb in comparison.

Hi techiesam, indeed the issue with D is not the absence of verb, but the use of lower.

rise cannot be lower; rise is less.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2018, 04:27
I'm curious about this question. Isn't less only used when the quantity cannot be counted? In this case, we are given a concrete number - 2.8. Shouldn't that mean that less cannot be used
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 17:13
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abhigulia3006 wrote:
I'm curious about this question. Isn't less only used when the quantity cannot be counted? In this case, we are given a concrete number - 2.8. Shouldn't that mean that less cannot be used


Quote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were

Whenever "less" is used as a noun modifier, then it needs to modify a non-countable noun. So you can't say "less doughnuts", for example, because "doughnuts" are grammatically countable (one doughnut, two doughnuts, three doughnuts). You probably already know all of that.

The trouble is, that's not what's happening in this question at all. The word "less" is actually an adverb that modifies the verb "rose" here: "employment costs rose... less than they did [in the past]." There's absolute no problem with using "less" to modify a verb, and when that happens, there's no need to worry about whether the noun is countable or non-countable.

So in this particular sentence, it makes perfect sense to say "employment costs rose... less than they did..." "They" correctly refers back to "employment costs", and it would be wrong to use "it" -- so that eliminates (B).

As many others have pointed out, it also doesn't make sense to say "employment costs rose... lower..." So that eliminates (D) and (E).

Between (A) and (C), it's useful to recognize that "did" basically replaces the word "rose." So in (A), we have "employment costs rose... less than [employment costs rose] in the year that ended the previous quarter." That works! But in (C), it doesn't quite make as much sense: "employment costs rose... less than [employment costs] were in the year that ended the previous quarter." Huh? The phrase "less than employment costs were" doesn't convey the meaning clearly at all. So we're left with (A).

I hope this helps!
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 09:17
calvinhobbes wrote:
Thanks for the reply. Kudos to all! :)

One follow-up question: I thought percent is countable and should be used with lower rather than less?

Thanks

Numbers such as: population, cost, premium,area, interest rate, percent, we use "greater" and "less" for such numbers
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2018, 03:17
jjhko wrote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were

Could someone also explain what the difference is between A and C?

Thank,
jjhko

look at choice D. because we have "in the year..." at at the second part of comparison and this phrase is parallel to "in the 12 monhs..." the cut off part must be " costs rise". and "cost rise lower" is not logic.
choice D can be correct if choice D is
"lower than the number of rise in cost in the year" . in this case the number 2.8 percent is compared with the number or rise. but because there is no phrase "the number" the comparison is about the two actions grammatically and , so, is not logic.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that &nbs [#permalink] 26 Sep 2018, 03:17

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