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# If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon

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If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2010, 00:34
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If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: carbon emissions in the United States [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2010, 00:49
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Pkit wrote:
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were

I choose B.
First of all, we are dealing here with a singular subject (emissions level) and as such it requires a singular "that", not "those". On the basis of this, we can eliminate answer choices A, D, and E. Just by looking at C, you can simply rule it out ( is was). So, B is the correct answer.
This problem is yet another example of skimming the CAT in different ways. We can solve this problem by looking at "that" and "those" or we can look at the split between "will" and "would". If we consider the split between "will" and "would", the rule says to go for "will" because we are not dealing with a hypothetical case here and as such it doesn't warrant the use of "would". On the basis of this split, we can safely rule out answer choices C, D and E. Between A and b, we go for B because A uses the plural pronoun "those" inplace of "that"
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Re: carbon emissions in the United States [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2010, 19:25
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The point here is, the hypothetical if..then statement.

if ( Present) trends continue result ( definite - so future will). This is a well defined if.. then structure. Similar structures exist for if (past) result (future past - would) and if (past perfect) result (future past perfect - would have ).

Seeing these structures one can figure out the answer option quite quickly.
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Re: carbon emissions in the United States [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2010, 21:26
B.first its an if then construction so it needs will in then clause when if is in present tense.we need to compare "carbon emissions soaring" in 1999 with 2000
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Re: carbon emissions in the United States [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2010, 23:15
Great question. Took sometime time to get to B but used the singular plural marker to arrive.
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Re: carbon emissions in the United States [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 09:15
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were

level of carbon emissions is discussed here - so singular pronoun is required here.
we must use will rather than would, which is hypothetical, for future tense.
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Re: carbon emissions in the United States [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 11:10
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Really nice work here, team! This one really comes down to two main points:

1) The "If x happens, then y will happen" construction - we need "will" and not "would"
2) We're forced to choose between "that in 1990" and "those in 1990", so we need to find the correct noun that "that/those" refers back to. We have some clues:

"more than one third higher" is the comparison. Can the "emissions" (the plural potential antecedent) really be higher than those previously? That would just mean that they're vertically higher in the atmosphere than before...that doesn't make logical sense. The "level", though, makes perfectly logical sense to be higher, so it really has to be "level", and therefore "that" not "those".

The comparison "more than" comes after the verb "soar", meaning that the object of the verb "soar" is going to have to be what's "more than" what came prior. Grammatically, that takes us again to "level", and "that" not "those".

Great work, B Team!
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2011, 16:06
chose D, then figured that if----will so yea B for me
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2011, 10:25
will is needed. A is incorrect to use those. B.
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2013, 03:18
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2014, 03:08
PTK wrote:
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were

we can infer the intended meaning right when we read only the original choice. the meaning is the level of the year 2010 is higher than the level of the year previous.. This step require effort adn skillful.

"those" is wrong because we need a singular pronoun
"was,were" are wrong because ellipsis rule require that to use a form of to be in the second half of comparison, a form of to be needs to present in the first half of comparison.

both will and would can be used in present time, and would is less certain.
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2015, 11:59
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2015, 12:39
PTK wrote:
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.

A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
those refers to "level", but it does not agree in number. were is not needed.

B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
correctly uses if+present, then+future simple
that correctly refers to "a level"

C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
will is needed instead of would, is was - redundant

D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
same conditional error as in c. same error as in a.

E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were
same error s in c and d. they were - same error as in a.
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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08 May 2015, 00:44
PTK wrote:
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were

Ans B.

A - were those is wrong. level is compared and its singular.

C,D and E - Easy to eliminate because the if clause is in present tense and we need will and not would
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If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2015, 04:23
Typo in Choice C: 'than is was' should be 'than it was'

See the correct version here: http://gmatclub.com/forum/if-current-trends-continue-by-the-year-2010-carbon-61684.html?fl=similar
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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28 May 2016, 04:03
shekharvineet wrote:
Pkit wrote:
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were

I choose B.
First of all, we are dealing here with a singular subject (emissions level) and as such it requires a singular "that", not "those". On the basis of this, we can eliminate answer choices A, D, and E. Just by looking at C, you can simply rule it out ( is was). So, B is the correct answer.
This problem is yet another example of skimming the CAT in different ways. We can solve this problem by looking at "that" and "those" or we can look at the split between "will" and "would". If we consider the split between "will" and "would", the rule says to go for "will" because we are not dealing with a hypothetical case here and as such it doesn't warrant the use of "would". On the basis of this split, we can safely rule out answer choices C, D and E. Between A and b, we go for B because A uses the plural pronoun "those" inplace of "that"

I have a doubt.
Is it correct to say will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that in 1990 instead of 'higher than that of 1990'
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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28 May 2016, 05:23
sa18 wrote:
shekharvineet wrote:
Pkit wrote:
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.
A. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those
B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those
E. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than they were

I choose B.
First of all, we are dealing here with a singular subject (emissions level) and as such it requires a singular "that", not "those". On the basis of this, we can eliminate answer choices A, D, and E. Just by looking at C, you can simply rule it out ( is was). So, B is the correct answer.
This problem is yet another example of skimming the CAT in different ways. We can solve this problem by looking at "that" and "those" or we can look at the split between "will" and "would". If we consider the split between "will" and "would", the rule says to go for "will" because we are not dealing with a hypothetical case here and as such it doesn't warrant the use of "would". On the basis of this split, we can safely rule out answer choices C, D and E. Between A and b, we go for B because A uses the plural pronoun "those" inplace of "that"

I have a doubt.
Is it correct to say will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that in 1990 instead of 'higher than that of 1990'

Probably I can see your point: if the comparison were between 2 clauses, then "in 1990" would be correct:

By 2010 CE will soar to a level x higher than (the level) was in 1990. ..("in 1990" is OK)

Nonetheless your doubt is probably whether the prepositional phrase modifier "in 1990" be used to refer to a noun ("level") as used in option B.

The level in 2010 was xxx. ("in 2010" is an adverbial phrase referring to the verb "was" - answering the question "when was...."? - it is a part of the clause, not an adjective for the noun "level")

The level of 2010 was xxx. ("of 2010" is an adjectival phrase referring to the noun "level")

Thus your doubt probably is whether in absence of a clause (i.e. a verb) the adjectival phrase "in 1990" would be correct.

Yes, it would be. The phrase "in ....." can also be used an adjectival phrase as follows:

The table in the kitchen is broken.

Here " in the kitchen" is used as adjectival phrase for "table". Thus as we see, the phrase "in..." can function both as an adjectival and as an adverbial phrase and hence option B ("in 1990" used as adjectival phrase) is alright.
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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28 May 2016, 10:19
sa18 wrote:
I have a doubt.
Is it correct to say will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that in 1990 instead of 'higher than that of 1990'

Hi sa18, may be an example would help. Would you say:

i) Stock levels in 2016 were higher than stock levels in 2009

Or

ii) Stock levels of 2016 were higher than stock levels of 2009

Hopefully you can now see that levels in 2016 is better than levels of 2016. If it still does not ring bells, you might just want to remember this as an idiomatic issue. Another Officially correct sentence that reiterates this:

According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment to the lowest level in two years suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing.
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Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2016, 04:36
If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon emissions in the United States will soar to a level more than one-third higher than were those in 1990, according to official projections.

B. will soar to a level more than one-third higher than that
C. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than is was
D. would soar to a level more than one-third higher than those

We need that to refer back to level.
Re: If current trends continue, by the year 2010 carbon   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2016, 04:36
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