Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Thank you for using the timer!
We noticed you are actually not timing your practice. Click the START button first next time you use the timer.
There are many benefits to timing your practice, including:

Quant Quizzes are back with a Bang and with lots of Prizes. The first Quiz will be on 8th Dec, 6PM PST (7:30AM IST). The Quiz will be Live for 12 hrs. Solution can be posted anytime between 6PM-6AM PST. Please click the link for all of the details.

Join IIMU Director to gain an understanding of DEM program, its curriculum & about the career prospects through a Q&A chat session. Dec 11th at 8 PM IST and 6:30 PST

Enter The Economist GMAT Tutor’s Brightest Minds competition – it’s completely free! All you have to do is take our online GMAT simulation test and put your mind to the test. Are you ready? This competition closes on December 13th.

Attend a Veritas Prep GMAT Class for Free. With free trial classes you can work with a 99th percentile expert free of charge. Learn valuable strategies and find your new favorite instructor; click for a list of upcoming dates and teachers.

Does GMAT RC seem like an uphill battle? e-GMAT is conducting a free webinar to help you learn reading strategies that can enable you to solve 700+ level RC questions with at least 90% accuracy in less than 10 days.

If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

21 Jun 2010, 02:23

36

58

Finding the number of powers of a prime number k, in the n!.

The formula is: \(\frac{n}{k}+\frac{n}{k^2}+\frac{n}{k^3}\) ... till \(n>k^x\)

For example: what is the power of 2 in 25! (the highest value of m for which 2^m is a factor of 25!) \(\frac{25}{2}+\frac{25}{4}+\frac{25}{8}+\frac{25}{16}=12+6+3+1=22\). So the highest power of 2 in 25! is 22: \(2^{22}*k=25!\), where k is the product of other multiple of 25!.

Back to the original question: If p is the product of integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is the greatest integer k for which \(3^k\) is a factor of p?

A. 10 B. 12 C. 14 D. 16 E. 18

Given \(p=30!\).

Now, we should check the highest power of 3 in 30!: \(\frac{30}{3}+\frac{30}{3^2}+\frac{30}{3^3}=10+3+1=14\). So the highest power of 3 in 30! is 14.

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

23 Aug 2012, 20:27

8

2

If p is the product of integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is the greatest integer k for which 3^k is a factor of p?

a) 10 b) 12 c) 14 d) 16 e) 18

Values which we are looking for are 3,6,9,12,.. all multiples till 30 now everything will give you atleast 1 power of 3 but there are values which will give more than 1 power of 3 and those values will be multiples of 9 9 -> will give 2 powers 18-> will give 2 powers 27 -> will give 3 powers NUmber of single powers of 3 = (30-3)/3 +1 - 1(for 9) - 1(for 18) -1(for 27) = 7 so total powers = 2(for 9) + 2(for 18) + 3(for 27) + 7 = 14

This is an OG12 question. Can someone tell me if there is a quick way to solve these kinds of questions since the OG explanation seems to be very time consuming?

Finding the number of powers of a prime number k, in the n!.

The formula is: \(\frac{n}{k}+\frac{n}{k^2}+\frac{n}{k^3}\) ... till \(n>k^x\)

For example: what is the power of 2 in 25! (the highest value of m for which 2^m is a factor of 25!) \(\frac{25}{2}+\frac{25}{4}+\frac{25}{8}+\frac{25}{16}=12+6+3+1=22\). So the highest power of 2 in 25! is 22: \(2^{22}*k=25!\), where k is the product of other multiple of 25!.

Back to the original question: If p is the product of integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is the greatest integer k for which \(3^k\) is a factor of p?

A. 10 B. 12 C. 14 D. 16 E. 18

Given \(p=30!\).

Now, we should check the highest power of 3 in 30!: \(\frac{30}{3}+\frac{30}{3^2}+\frac{30}{3^3}=10+3+1=14\). So the highest power of 3 in 30! is 1.

Answer: C.

Hope it's clear.

Hi Bunuel,

This explanation makes complete sense but i'm curious as to why another method doesn't work.

I first found the number of integers (30-1+1) = 30 Average of 30+1/2 = 15.5

30 * 15.5 = 465

Factoring 465 only gave me one "3" and therefore I knew it was wrong but I had wasted valuable time. I realized that what I had done doesn't account for the product but rather the sumof the consecutive integers. Correct?

If the question was changed just a bit to say that "p" is the sum of the integers from 1 - 30 then my method would've worked and the answer would've been 1. Is that correct?

This is an OG12 question. Can someone tell me if there is a quick way to solve these kinds of questions since the OG explanation seems to be very time consuming?

Finding the number of powers of a prime number k, in the n!.

The formula is: \(\frac{n}{k}+\frac{n}{k^2}+\frac{n}{k^3}\) ... till \(n>k^x\)

For example: what is the power of 2 in 25! (the highest value of m for which 2^m is a factor of 25!) \(\frac{25}{2}+\frac{25}{4}+\frac{25}{8}+\frac{25}{16}=12+6+3+1=22\). So the highest power of 2 in 25! is 22: \(2^{22}*k=25!\), where k is the product of other multiple of 25!.

Back to the original question: If p is the product of integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is the greatest integer k for which \(3^k\) is a factor of p?

A. 10 B. 12 C. 14 D. 16 E. 18

Given \(p=30!\).

Now, we should check the highest power of 3 in 30!: \(\frac{30}{3}+\frac{30}{3^2}+\frac{30}{3^3}=10+3+1=14\). So the highest power of 3 in 30! is 1.

Answer: C.

Hope it's clear.

Hi Bunuel,

This explanation makes complete sense but i'm curious as to why another method doesn't work.

I first found the number of integers (30-1+1) = 30 Average of 30+1/2 = 15.5

30 * 15.5 = 465

Factoring 465 only gave me one "3" and therefore I knew it was wrong but I had wasted valuable time. I realized that what I had done doesn't account for the product but rather the sumof the consecutive integers. Correct?

If the question was changed just a bit to say that "p" is the sum of the integers from 1 - 30 then my method would've worked and the answer would've been 1. Is that correct?

Yes, you are correct. If it were "p is the SUM of integers from 1 to 30, inclusive", then the answer would be 1.
_________________

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

30 Oct 2015, 10:58

Looking at the possible answers I understood what I should be looking for.

But was I the only one confused with the question, since "a factor is an integer that divides another integer without leaving a remainder"? What I mean is: having in mind the definition of a "factor", I could be looking for the biggest "factor", resulting from 3^k, and not the highest power of 3 in 30 (or the number of 3 in the prime factorization of p).

This is probably a dumb question, but I'm probably missing something that you guys are not and I want to be sure that I see it from now on.

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

30 Oct 2015, 12:03

GuidoVdS wrote:

Looking at the possible answers I understood what I should be looking for.

But was I the only one confused with the question, since "a factor is an integer that divides another integer without leaving a remainder"? What I mean is: having in mind the definition of a "factor", I could be looking for the biggest "factor", resulting from 3^k, and not the highest power of 3 in 30 (or the number of 3 in the prime factorization of p).

This is probably a dumb question, but I'm probably missing something that you guys are not and I want to be sure that I see it from now on.

The answer to your question is that you need to sometimes use the options provided in a PS question to guide you in order to understand the way/method to apply. Once you look at the options, the only way the statement you have mentioned above in red can be interpreted is by finding that power 'k' of 3, such that 3^k divides or is a factor of a number = 1*2*3*4*5*6...*30

Lets say you get an answer of 9 as the "biggest factor", this can also be mentioned as 3^2, giving you the value of k=2.

The only way a 'factor' can be a factor of another integer is by having the same prime factors as in the integer and having the same powers of these prime factors.

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

18 May 2016, 12:27

ajju2688 wrote:

If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is the greatest integer k for which 3^k is a factor of p ?

(A) 10 (B) 12 (C) 14 (D) 16 (E) 18

Solution:

We are given that p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30 inclusive, which is the same as 30!.

We know that 30! must be divisible by all the numbers from 30 to 1, inclusive. In this question, however, we only care about the numbers in the factorial that are divisible by 3. All of the other numbers are irrelevant. For example, 20 is not a multiple of 3, and because 3 does not evenly divide into 20, there’s no need to consider it. Only the multiples of 3 matter for this problem and they are: 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3.

What we’re really being asked is how many prime factors of 3 are contained in the product of 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3.

However, instead of actually calculating the product and then doing the prime factorization, we can simply count the number of prime factors of 3 in each number from our set of multiples of 3: 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3.

30 has 1 prime factor of 3.

27 has 3 prime factors of 3.

24 has 1 prime factor of 3.

21 has 1 prime factor of 3.

18 has 2 prime factor of 3.

15 has 1 prime factor of 3.

12 has 1 prime factor of 3.

9 has 2 prime factors of 3.

6 has 1 prime factor of 3.

3 has 1 prime factor of 3.

When we sum the total number of prime factors of 3 in our list we get 14. It follows that 14 is the greatest value K for which 3^k divides evenly into 30!, and thus k = 14.

Answer: C

Alternate Solution

There’s actually a shortcut that can be used. The question is what is the largest possible value of k such that 30!/3^k is an integer. To use the shortcut, divide the divisor 3 into 30, which is simply the numerator without the factorial. This division is 30/3 = 10. We then divide 3 into the resulting quotient of 10, and ignore any remainder. This division is 10/3 = 3. We again divide 3 into the resulting quotient of 3. This division is 3/3 = 1. Since our quotient of 1 is smaller than the divisor of 3, we can stop here. The final step is to add together all the quotients: 10 + 3 + 1 = 14.

Thus, the largest value of k is 14. One caveat to this shortcut is that it only works when the denominator is a prime number. For example, had the denominator been 9, this rule could not have been used.
_________________

Affiliations: AB, cum laude, Harvard University (Class of '02)

Joined: 10 Jul 2015

Posts: 715

Location: United States (CA)

Age: 40

GMAT 1: 770 Q47 V48

GMAT 2: 730 Q44 V47

GMAT 3: 750 Q50 V42

GRE 1: Q168 V169

WE: Education (Education)

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

10 Aug 2016, 19:13

Top Contributor

Attached is a visual that should help.

Attachments

Screen Shot 2016-08-10 at 7.09.59 PM.png [ 108.13 KiB | Viewed 33435 times ]

_________________

Harvard grad and 99% GMAT scorer, offering expert, private GMAT tutoring and coaching worldwide since 2002.

One of the only known humans to have taken the GMAT 5 times and scored in the 700s every time (700, 710, 730, 750, 770), including verified section scores of Q50 / V47, as well as personal bests of 8/8 IR (2 times), 6/6 AWA (4 times), 50/51Q and 48/51V.

You can download my official test-taker score report (all scores within the last 5 years) directly from the Pearson Vue website: https://tinyurl.com/y7knw7bt Date of Birth: 09 December 1979.

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

14 Oct 2016, 18:28

I was wondering, shouldn't the answer be k=15 in reality? It was not specified that the integer k must be positive, hence 3^0=1 would also be one of the factors? Please correct me if I'm wrong.

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

15 Oct 2016, 02:25

1

liseh wrote:

I was wondering, shouldn't the answer be k=15 in reality? It was not specified that the integer k must be positive, hence 3^0=1 would also be one of the factors? Please correct me if I'm wrong.

No. 3^15 is not a factor of p = 30! while 3^14 is.
_________________

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]

Show Tags

14 Jan 2018, 12:32

Hi All,

These types of questions are based on a math concept called "prime factorization", which basically means that any integer greater than 1 is either prime OR the product of a bunch of primes.

Here's a simple example:

24 = (2)(2)(2)(3)

Now, when it comes to this question, we're asked to multiply all the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive and find the greatest integer K for which 3^K is a factor of this really big number.

Here's a simple example with a smaller product: 1 to 6, inclusive… (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)

Then numbers 1, 2, 4 and 5 do NOT have any 3's in them, so we can essentially ignore them: 3 = one 3 6 = (2)(3) = one 3 Total = two 3's

So 3^2 is the biggest "power of 3" that goes into the product of 1 to 6, inclusive.

Using that same idea, we need to find all of the 3's in the product of 1 to 30, inclusive. Here though, you have to be careful, since there are probably MORE 3's than immediately realize:

3 = one 3 6 = one 3 9 = (3)(3) = two 3s 12 = one 3 15 = one 3 18 = (2)(3)(3) = two 3s 21 = one 3 24 = one 3 27 = (3)(3)(3) = three 3s 30 = one 3

This is an OG12 question. Can someone tell me if there is a quick way to solve these kinds of questions since the OG explanation seems to be very time consuming?

Finding the number of powers of a prime number k, in the n!.

The formula is: \(\frac{n}{k}+\frac{n}{k^2}+\frac{n}{k^3}\) ... till \(n>k^x\)

For example: what is the power of 2 in 25! (the highest value of m for which 2^m is a factor of 25!) \(\frac{25}{2}+\frac{25}{4}+\frac{25}{8}+\frac{25}{16}=12+6+3+1=22\). So the highest power of 2 in 25! is 22: \(2^{22}*k=25!\), where k is the product of other multiple of 25!.

Back to the original question: If p is the product of integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is the greatest integer k for which \(3^k\) is a factor of p?

A. 10 B. 12 C. 14 D. 16 E. 18

Given \(p=30!\).

Now, we should check the highest power of 3 in 30!: \(\frac{30}{3}+\frac{30}{3^2}+\frac{30}{3^3}=10+3+1=14\). So the highest power of 3 in 30! is 14.

Answer: C.

Hope it's clear.

Could you further explain how you arrived at "10+3+1=14" from the equation which you created before it?

gmatclubot

Re: If p is the product of the integers from 1 to 30, inclusive, what is
[#permalink]
14 Jan 2018, 16:20