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# In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their

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In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2011, 09:38
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In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by DYNAMITE on 05 Jul 2011, 10:13, edited 1 time in total.

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05 Jul 2011, 19:08
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I agree. It should be " partly TO lower high fuel prices and TO reduce repair costs".
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05 Jul 2011, 19:30
Can anyone explain... why E and not C???
I also thought it to be C...

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07 Jul 2011, 20:37
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C is wordy and thus eliminated
Consider this :
Mary likes to eat and dance. ("We can share the infinitive form b/w the two verbs")

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08 Jul 2011, 10:39
DYNAMITE wrote:
In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!

No, it is still parallel because you cut off at the same point for each item on the list:

PARTLY TO

1. lower fuel costs
2. reduce repair costs

Parallelism is not just about making two items in a list look stylistically and logically similar. It is about splitting off at the same point for each item.

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08 Jul 2011, 11:40
DYNAMITE wrote:
In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!

Has to E.
you dont need to repeat the infinitive again because of the usage of conjunction 'and'.

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09 Jul 2011, 12:57
DYNAMITE wrote:
In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!

I have a doubt. The two parallel elements that i am comparing have been higlighted below- 'partly to' and 'partly because'. Shouldn't both the parallel elements start with partly because as in option 'C'?
partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2012, 01:28
Can someone please explain reasons to eliminate C ?
Why E is better over C in terms of parallelism ?
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2012, 01:55
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DYNAMITE wrote:
In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!

its easy to eliminate A,B looking at the non underlined part..among C,D & E

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer - should is a subjunctive verb and can not be used when the intent is definite. Here the fleets are replaced to reducefuel cost..... not that fleets are reduced because fuel cost should be reduced...

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs - this is not the best construction

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs -Correct

B is wrong -
we do x to achieve y.
we do x so that y should be achieved. (Is the difference visible??)

E- is right-

infinitives are used in two ways-

1. to do,to think,to make and to reach.
2. to do,think,make and reach.

either to should be used with every verb in the list or should be used only once in the beginning of the list.

to do,make,think and to reach - this is an incorrect construction.

Hope this helps!
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Last edited by yashii9 on 05 Oct 2012, 09:26, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2012, 08:16
Quote:
should is a subjective verb and can not be used when the intent is definite

Can you please throw more light on the acceptable usage of SHOULD ?
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2012, 09:25
Quote:
should is a subjective verb and can not be used when the intent is definite

Can you please throw more light on the acceptable usage of SHOULD ?

B is wrong -
we do x to achieve y.
we do x so that y should be achieved. (Is the difference visible??)
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2013, 08:59
(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

"lower fuel prices" changes the meaning of the original sentence. The costs are lower, not prices. This would make letter E wrong. What do you think?

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 12:16
brunoocosta wrote:
(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

"lower fuel prices" changes the meaning of the original sentence. The costs are lower, not prices. This would make letter E wrong. What do you think?

IMO E

The intent is to lower the fuel costs that are incurred, so "lower fuel prices" is correct. Prices can be lower or higher.
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 15:01
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Meaning is key to solve this question. Grammar alone is not enough.

In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced
Wrong.
- Not parallel: in part vs partly
- Incorrect meaning: The intended meaning is that the trouble airlines exchanged old fleets to lower THEIR costs. The sentence, however, says they exchanged old fleets to new ones because high fuel costs (in general) should be lowered. That's does not make sense. If high fuel costs will be lowered, these troubled airlines will NOT need to exchange their old fleets. They exchanged old fleets to new ones because they need to lower THEIR high fuel costs to create competitive advantage.

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced
Wrong.
- Not parallel: in part vs partly
- Incorrect meaning: same as A.

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer
Wrong. SHELL GAME.
If you just base on grammars and picked C, you got the sentence wrong because C conveys WRONG meaning. See explanation on A.

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs
Wrong.
- we should use verb rather than the noun form of it. Verbs always convey better meaning and are more precise.

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs
Correct.
- Parallelism: partly || partly
- Correct meaning: exchange old fleets to new ones TO lower costs.

Hope it helps.
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 18:19
i cannot understand why lowerin prices is used here,clearly lowerin costs n lowerin prices are two different things, changes the whole meaning .

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2013, 18:38
jakelong1 wrote:
i cannot understand why lowerin prices is used here,clearly lowerin costs n lowerin prices are two different things, changes the whole meaning .

Hi Jake
In this context, "prices" also means costs. Let imagine, the old airplanes will require special fuel that is more expensive than the normal fuel. The troubled airlines exchanged the old fleets to new fleets, thus they don't have to pay for higher prices (of special fuel).

Hope it's clear.
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2013, 10:11
I still disagree. I don't think there is special fuel in real life. Fuel efficiency is the only thing that changes. In this context, the company doesn't lower prices. Prices are fixed by world supply and demand. They merely lower the volume, and consequently the cost they actually incur. This answer seems wrong.

pqhai wrote:
jakelong1 wrote:
i cannot understand why lowerin prices is used here,clearly lowerin costs n lowerin prices are two different things, changes the whole meaning .

Hi Jake
In this context, "prices" also means costs. Let imagine, the old airplanes will require special fuel that is more expensive than the normal fuel. The troubled airlines exchanged the old fleets to new fleets, thus they don't have to pay for higher prices (of special fuel).

Hope it's clear.

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 08:06
yashii9 wrote:
DYNAMITE wrote:
In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!

its easy to eliminate A,B looking at the non underlined part..among C,D & E

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer - should is a subjunctive verb and can not be used when the intent is definite. Here the fleets are replaced to reducefuel cost..... not that fleets are reduced because fuel cost should be reduced...

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs - this is not the best construction

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs -Correct

B is wrong -
we do x to achieve y.
we do x so that y should be achieved. (Is the difference visible??)

E- is right-

infinitives are used in two ways-

1. to do,to think,to make and to reach.
2. to do,think,make and reach.

either to should be used with every verb in the list or should be used only once in the beginning of the list.

to do,make,think and to reach - this is an incorrect construction.

Hope this helps!

Thanks for clarifying. I chose B as I was blindly trying to make them parallel. One should keep the meaning in mind while making the elements parallel. When infinitive is used, it conveys the intention and that is a big signal to consider while picking up the answer choices.

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2013, 06:35
DYNAMITE wrote:
In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their aging, inefficient fleets for a smaller number of efficient new airplanes, in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced and partly because low entry barriers for new carriers have created intense competition.

(A) in part because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced

(B) in part that high fuel costs might be lowered and repair costs might be reduced

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

(D) partly for the lowering of high fuel costs and the reduction of repair costs

(E) partly to lower high fuel prices and reduce repair costs

Hi guys,

Shouldn't (E) be "to lower... AND to reduce" to be parallel? Why is it optional? I picked C because of it has explicit parallel structure even though it sounds very awkward!

Dude, follow the rules on posting.

(C) partly because high fuel costs should be lowered and repair costs should be reduced your answer

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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2015, 04:39
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Re: In recent years, troubled airlines have exchanged their   [#permalink] 12 Feb 2015, 04:39

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