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In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape

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In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Jun 2016, 23:32
Question 1
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based on 65 sessions

45% (03:20) correct 55% (03:22) wrong

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Question 2
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51% (01:53) correct 49% (01:52) wrong

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based on 55 sessions

67% (01:14) correct 33% (01:02) wrong

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61% (01:27) correct 39% (00:56) wrong

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Question 5
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37% (01:11) correct 63% (01:11) wrong

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In tracing the changing face of the Irish
landscape, scholars have traditionally relied primarily
on evidence from historical documents. However, such
documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at
(5) best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts
of Ireland prior to the seventeenth century, and many
of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.

(10) Studies of fossilized pollen grains preserved in
peats and lake muds provide an additional means of
investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of
changes in vegetation resulting from both human
activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds
(15)and quantities of minute pollen grains that become
trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify
which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollen
grains and when they were deposited, and in many
cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct
(20) the documentary record.

For example, analyses of samples from Long
Lough in County Down have revealed significant
patterns of cereal-grain pollen beginning by about 400
A.D. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
(25) of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D. Because cereal cultivation would have required
(30) tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.

Another example concerns flax cultivation in
County Down, one of the great linen-producing areas
(35) of Ireland during the eighteenth century. Some aspects
of linen production in Down are well documented, but
the documentary record tells little about the cultivation
of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that
area. The record of eighteenth-century linen
(40) production in Down, together with the knowledge that
flax cultivation had been established in Ireland
centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down
before the eighteenth century. But pollen analyses
(45) indicate that this is not the case; flax pollen was found
only in deposits laid down since the eighteenth
century.

It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to
the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative
(50) history of the landscape. For example, pollen analyses
cannot identify the species, but only the genus or
family, of some plants. Among these is madder, a
cultivated dye plant of historical importance in Ireland.
Madder belongs to a plant family that also comprises
(55) various native weeds, including goosegrass. If madder
pollen were present in a deposit it would be
indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native
species.
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?
(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.
(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.



2. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?
(A) The moldboard plough was introduced into Ireland in the seventh century.
(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.
(C) In certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the moldboard plough.
(D) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.
(E) Cereal grain cultivation began in County Down around 400 A.D.



3. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37) primarily refers to
(A) documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen
(B) the kinds and quantities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds
(C) written and pictorial descriptions by current historians of the events and landscapes of past centuries
(D) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recorded conditions and events of that time
(E) articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period



4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one
of the following?
(A) The Irish landscape had experienced significant flooding during the seventeenth century.
(B) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in Ireland until at least the seventh century.
(C) The history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was well documented.
(D) Madder was not used as a dye plant in Ireland until after the eighteenth century.
(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County Down may well have occurred before the eighteenth century.



5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?
(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.
(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.
(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view.
(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph.



Originally posted by tagmag on 02 Jun 2016, 05:37.
Last edited by tagmag on 03 Jun 2016, 23:32, edited 2 times in total.
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
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Re: In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2016, 10:14
Dear tagmag,

I'm happy to respond! :-) A passage about the history of the land of me fathers! It warms the very cockles of me heart! :-)

This is an LSAT RC question, an official LSAC question released here. LSAT RC is good practice for GMAT RC, and of course, LSAT Logical Reasoning is typically tougher than GMAT Critical Reasoning, so the former is excellent practice for the latter.

Were you interested in explanations to any of the questions here?

Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep


Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

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Re: In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2016, 10:47
Hi Mike

thanks for the reply.
I was able to complete the passage in 12:33 and got all questions correct. I guessed Q. 4 though, was stuck between B and E. Later, with deeper analysis realized that in choice B,it is anywhere in Ireland and not just in long lough.
For past one week I have been practicing from LSAT passages,and,as you said,they are good practice
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Re: In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 06:44
Can someone explain how c is correct for last question:
Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

Aman.

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Re: In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 22:10
beebuzz0504 wrote:
Can someone explain how c is correct for last question:
Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

Aman.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Aman,

5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?
(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example. -->> Incorrect
(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.-->> Again, final para is a possible limiting case for para 2, it's not a problem but a point that researcher needs to keep in mind while doing pollen based analysis

(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph. -->> the final talks about limitation of pollen based analysis based on another grain that is similar which is quite difficult to differentiate from pollen, thereby limiting the use of pollen based method or in other words researcher needs to be careful while employing this method.

(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view. -->> incorrect
(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph. -->> incorrect
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Re: In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape &nbs [#permalink] 22 Aug 2018, 22:10
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In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape

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