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In tracing the changing face of the Irish landscape, scholars have tra

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New post Updated on: 23 Sep 2019, 03:41
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 228, Date : 25-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In tracing the changing face of the Irish
landscape, scholars have traditionally relied primarily
on evidence from historical documents. However, such
documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at
(5) best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts
of Ireland prior to the seventeenth century, and many
of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.

(10) Studies of fossilized pollen grains preserved in
peats and lake muds provide an additional means of
investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of
changes in vegetation resulting from both human
activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds
(15)and quantities of minute pollen grains that become
trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify
which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollen
grains and when they were deposited, and in many
cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct
(20) the documentary record.

For example, analyses of samples from Long
Lough in County Down have revealed significant
patterns of cereal-grain pollen beginning by about 400
A.D. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
(25) of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D. Because cereal cultivation would have required
(30) tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.

Another example concerns flax cultivation in
County Down, one of the great linen-producing areas
(35) of Ireland during the eighteenth century. Some aspects
of linen production in Down are well documented, but
the documentary record tells little about the cultivation
of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that
area. The record of eighteenth-century linen
(40) production in Down, together with the knowledge that
flax cultivation had been established in Ireland
centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down
before the eighteenth century. But pollen analyses
(45) indicate that this is not the case; flax pollen was found
only in deposits laid down since the eighteenth
century.

It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to
the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative
(50) history of the landscape. For example, pollen analyses
cannot identify the species, but only the genus or
family, of some plants. Among these is madder, a
cultivated dye plant of historical importance in Ireland.
Madder belongs to a plant family that also comprises
(55) various native weeds, including goosegrass. If madder
pollen were present in a deposit it would be
indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native
species.


1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.
(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.



2. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?

(A) The moldboard plough was introduced into Ireland in the seventh century.
(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.
(C) In certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the moldboard plough.
(D) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.
(E) Cereal grain cultivation began in County Down around 400 A.D.



3. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37) primarily refers to

(A) documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen
(B) the kinds and quantities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds
(C) written and pictorial descriptions by current historians of the events and landscapes of past centuries
(D) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recorded conditions and events of that time
(E) articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period



4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one
of the following?


(A) The Irish landscape had experienced significant flooding during the seventeenth century.
(B) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in Ireland until at least the seventh century.
(C) The history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was well documented.
(D) Madder was not used as a dye plant in Ireland until after the eighteenth century.
(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County Down may well have occurred before the eighteenth century.



5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.
(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.
(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view.
(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph.



Source: LSAT June 2007

Originally posted by tagmag on 02 Jun 2016, 05:37.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 23 Sep 2019, 03:41, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (625).
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New post 19 Aug 2018, 06:44
1
1
Can someone explain how c is correct for last question:
Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

Aman.

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 22:10
beebuzz0504 wrote:
Can someone explain how c is correct for last question:
Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

Aman.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Aman,

5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?
(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example. -->> Incorrect
(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.-->> Again, final para is a possible limiting case for para 2, it's not a problem but a point that researcher needs to keep in mind while doing pollen based analysis

(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph. -->> the final talks about limitation of pollen based analysis based on another grain that is similar which is quite difficult to differentiate from pollen, thereby limiting the use of pollen based method or in other words researcher needs to be careful while employing this method.

(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view. -->> incorrect
(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph. -->> incorrect
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 23:46
suelahmed wrote:

5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph. -->> the final talks about limitation of pollen based analysis based on another grain that is similar which is quite difficult to differentiate from pollen, thereby limiting the use of pollen based method or in other words researcher needs to be careful while employing this method.


How does that QUALIFY the CLAIM of 2nd paragraph though?
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New post 28 Jul 2019, 06:54
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.
(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.

hi experts, i am struggled with A and E, and eventually picked up E because of the last paragraph, which says limit.
in contrast, A doesnot mention the limit , the point of the last paraphragh.

Please~~~
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New post 28 Jul 2019, 07:06
Hello zoezhuyan

(E) is too extreme. The author thinks the process is overall good. This takes the limits described at the very end too far.

(A) is correct. It points out the author’s overall idea about this process. It also implies the limits described in the last paragraph by noting that the process is useful “in some cases .”

So A is the preferable over E

Hope it helps

zoezhuyan wrote:
1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.
(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.

hi experts, i am struggled with A and E, and eventually picked up E because of the last paragraph, which says limit.
in contrast, A doesnot mention the limit , the point of the last paraphragh.

Please~~~

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New post 28 Jul 2019, 12:46
Please explain 5th question
It said there are some limits for the pollen based analysis ,so how does it support 2nd paragraph
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New post 28 Jul 2019, 21:08
please explain 5 th question
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New post 29 Jul 2019, 18:41
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Hello zoezhuyan

(E) is too extreme. The author thinks the process is overall good. This takes the limits described at the very end too far.



Hi SajjadAhmad
would you please clarify further "too far",
how to interpretate too far, what kind of condition can be classfied as too far,
How too far will impact the main idea of a passage?

thanks in adcanced.
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New post 29 Jul 2019, 20:15
Hello SajjadAhmad , GMATNinja , and nightblade354 ,

Could you please help me explain Q4:
The questions says what did some historians believed prior to the use of pollen analysis.

As per the passage:
Quote:
The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D.
Because cereal cultivation would have required
tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.


This part of passage suggests that the ceral crops would not have been cultivated prior to seventh century ( what option B in Q4 has to say)

Then why is Option B wrong?

Regards,
Rishav
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New post 30 Jul 2019, 00:21
3
Hello people beebuzz0504
kas007@india.com
Midhilesh489
Kanvi

Question #5 is here

Explanation


5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The second paragraph shows how pollen can be useful (pollen analysis lets us know which types of plants were grown in an area).
The final paragraph mentions the limits of pollen analysis (sometimes, species can’t be distinguished).

A. The final paragraph is in contrast with the second: paragraph 5 tells us ways in which pollen analysis is limited.

B. This is a trap. Paragraph 5 is not saying “Don’t use pollen analysis until it can identify madder”. Instead, it’s saying “Use pollen analysis, but be careful: it won’t help identify madder.”

C. CORRECT. See the analysis above. “Qualifies” means to make a statement less absolute. So if I say “Use logic, but remember it may not work in emotional situations”, then I’m “qualifying” the idea that you should use logic. That’s exactly what paragraph 5 does: It tells us of some situations where pollen analysis doesn’t work.

D. Nonsense. Paragraph 2 is the author’s view. The use of “for example” at the start of paragraph 3 makes clear that all of paragraph 2 was the author’s opinion.

E. No. The final paragraph is telling us when not to use the method described in the second paragraph.

Answer: C


Hope it helps
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New post 30 Jul 2019, 00:29
2
Explanation


4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is very similar to question 2. The two overturned views were in paragraphs 3 and 4.

Paragraph 3: soils in Long Lough weren’t tilled until the moldboard plough was introduced in the 7th century.
Paragraph 4: Flax was probably produced in County Down earlier than the 17th century.

A. I may have missed it, but I don’t think flooding was ever mentioned in the passage.

B. Too broad. Paragraph 3 only says that cereal grain wasn’t cultivated in one specific area: the clay soils of Long Lough in County Down. The rest of Ireland probably cultivated cereal grains (such as wheat). This is doubtful. Lines 5-9 say that the history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was not well documented.

C. And historians traditionally use historical documents (lines 1-3), so they would have been aware of this lack.

D. This answer mixes up paragraphs 4 and 5. The 18th century was only mentioned in reference to flax. It has nothing to do with madder.

E. CORRECT. Lines 42-44 say this directly.

Answer: E


Hope it helps

rish2708 wrote:
Hello SajjadAhmad , GMATNinja , and nightblade354 ,

Could you please help me explain Q4:
The questions says what did some historians believed prior to the use of pollen analysis.

As per the passage:
Quote:
The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D.
Because cereal cultivation would have required
tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.


This part of passage suggests that the ceral crops would not have been cultivated prior to seventh century ( what option B in Q4 has to say)

Then why is Option B wrong?

Regards,
Rishav

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New post 30 Jul 2019, 00:35
A too far is an extreme answer choice which is almost always wrong, some quantity words make an answer choice extreme like passage talk about "Many" but answer talk about the same thing but use word "Much" to make that extreme or too broad answer choice.

Let me give you a mathematical example, sometime passage covers 50% of something but answer generalize it to 100% of that same thing and that is extreme answer choice and in the same manner sometime answer cover only 5% of that thing (a fractional part) and that also couldn't be answer

Hope it helps

zoezhuyan wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Hello zoezhuyan

(E) is too extreme. The author thinks the process is overall good. This takes the limits described at the very end too far.



Hi SajjadAhmad
would you please clarify further "too far",
how to interpretate too far, what kind of condition can be classfied as too far,
How too far will impact the main idea of a passage?

thanks in adcanced.

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New post 30 Jul 2019, 01:09
SajjadAhmad wrote:
A too far is an extreme answer choice which is almost always wrong, some quantity words make an answer choice extreme like passage talk about "Many" but answer talk about the same thing but use word "Much" to make that extreme or too broad answer choice.

Let me give you a mathematical example, sometime passage covers 50% of something but answer generalize it to 100% of that same thing and that is extreme answer choice and in the same manner sometime answer cover only 5% of that thing (a fractional part) and that also couldn't be answer

Hope it helps

zoezhuyan wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Hello zoezhuyan

(E) is too extreme. The author thinks the process is overall good. This takes the limits described at the very end too far.



Hi SajjadAhmad
would you please clarify further "too far",
how to interpretate too far, what kind of condition can be classfied as too far,
How too far will impact the main idea of a passage?

thanks in adcanced.


nice point
thanks so much
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New post 30 Jul 2019, 08:48
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Explanation


4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This is very similar to question 2. The two overturned views were in paragraphs 3 and 4.

Paragraph 3: soils in Long Lough weren’t tilled until the moldboard plough was introduced in the 7th century.
Paragraph 4: Flax was probably produced in County Down earlier than the 17th century.

A. I may have missed it, but I don’t think flooding was ever mentioned in the passage.

B. Too broad. Paragraph 3 only says that cereal grain wasn’t cultivated in one specific area: the clay soils of Long Lough in County Down. The rest of Ireland probably cultivated cereal grains (such as wheat). This is doubtful. Lines 5-9 say that the history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was not well documented.

C. And historians traditionally use historical documents (lines 1-3), so they would have been aware of this lack.

D. This answer mixes up paragraphs 4 and 5. The 18th century was only mentioned in reference to flax. It has nothing to do with madder.

E. CORRECT. Lines 42-44 say this directly.

Answer: E


Hope it helps


Thanks a lot SajjadAhmad
I missed the "all" vs "certain" in P2. Thanks for such an elaborative answer explanation.

Regards,
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New post 02 Aug 2019, 04:03
2
All correct in 9 mins, including 4 mins to read.
Para 1- Irish landscape - documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at best
Para 2- fossilized pollen grains analysis(PGA)
Para 3- County Down- the pollen evidence indicates that these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled before the introduction of the new plough.
Para 4- flax cultivation in County down- pollen analyses contra information
Para 5- Limitations of PGA

1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.- Correct

2. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?

(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to any significant extent until the introduction of the moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century A.D. Because cereal cultivation would have required tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled before the introduction of the new plough.

3. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37) primarily refers to
(D) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recorded conditions and events of that time- Correct, these documentary records were produced in the past

4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one
of the following?

(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County Down may well have occurred before the eighteenth century.
The record of eighteenth-century linen production in Down, together with the knowledge that flax cultivation had been established in Ireland centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down before the eighteenth century. But pollen analyses indicate that this is not the case; flax pollen was found only in deposits laid down since the eighteenth century.


5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?
(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.- Correct, the claim in second para is that Analysis of fossilized pollen samples can identify which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollen grains and when they were deposited, and in many cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct the documentary record.
But in the last para, the limitations of the process(Analysis of fossilized pollen samples) is stated
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New post Updated on: 08 Mar 2020, 05:20
1
Hello everyone,
Got 4/5 correct in 12:30 minutes, including 6 minutes to read the passage.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


P1

The author starts with presenting a situation: the evidence that has been so far used to detail the change in the Irish landscape is incomplete and sometimes out of scope.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to claim that the evidence so fare been used for spotting changes in the Irish landscape is incomplete.



P2

In this paragraph the author presents a method that can be used to compensate for the incomplete evidence so far been available. The method involves the analysis of fossilized pollen grain in the fields. Such presence tells us about when and which plant was planted.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present a method that can compensate for the incompleteness of the evidence so far been used


P3

Paragraph 3 offers an example in which the analysis of pollen helped to clarify/correct what previously historians thought.
In a particular place pollen was found in 400 AD but scholars thought that cultivation started in the 7th century with the introduction of a plough.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to give an example of the application of the studies of pollen on a given scenario



P4

Paragraph 4 is very similar paragraph 3. We are given that scholars think that Flax was cultivated in particular location in Ireland before the 18th century because it is known that in general in Ireland Flax was cultivated before the 18th century. The analysis of pollen reveals on the other hand that in that particular region flax was cultivated starting from the 18th century.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to explain how through the analysis of pollen a wrong belief of scholars has been corrected


P5

In the last paragraph the author claims that there are some limitations to the usage of pollen analysis. One of these limitations is that pollen analysis reveal only the family of the plant and not the exact species.

Purpose: The purpose of the last paragraph is to highlight one limitation of pollen analysis



Main point

The main point of this passage is to claim that through pollen analysis, even tough limited, many beliefs regarding the change in the Irish landscape can be corrected or modified.



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

The main point of this passage is to claim that through pollen analysis, even tough limited, many beliefs regarding the change in the Irish landscape can be corrected or modified.




(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
In line with pre.thinking

(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
The main point does not focus on the documents

(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.
Ancient plants? Out of scope

(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
The impact of such plants is out of scope

(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.
This option is both part scope and correct. Partial scope because it refers only to the last paragraph and incorrect because the author never claims that the limitation is severe. Such language is too extreme.



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



2. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

We need to evaluate the single options as the question seems to be very broad.


(A) The moldboard plough was introduced into Ireland in the seventh century.
Fact, not an inference

(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.
From P2: " soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D."




(C) In certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the moldboard plough.
Continuously cannot be inferred here

(D) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.
Cannot be inferred because the tilling aspect regards a specific kind of soil

(E) Cereal grain cultivation began in County Down around 400 A.D.
Cannot be inferred



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




3. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37) primarily refers to

Pre-thinking

Function question

Clearly to all those documents used by scholars to make conclusions about the change in landscapes in Ireland


(A) documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) the kinds and quantities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) written and pictorial descriptions by current historians of the events and landscapes of past centuries
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recorded conditions and events of that time
in line with pre-thinking

(E) articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period
Not in line with pre-thinking



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one
of the following?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Let's analyze the options:


(A) The Irish landscape had experienced significant flooding during the seventeenth century.
Cannot be inferred

(B) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in Ireland until at least the seventh century.
Cannot be inferred

(C) The history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was well documented.
[b]Cannot be inferred[/b]

(D) Madder was not used as a dye plant in Ireland until after the eighteenth century.
Cannot be inferred

(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County Down may well have occurred before the eighteenth century.
From P3: "The record of eighteenth-century linen
(40) production in Down, together with the knowledge that
flax cultivation had been established in Ireland
centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down
before the eighteenth century."




-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

Pre-thinking

Function question

P2---->Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present a method that can compensate for the incompleteness of the evidence so far been used

P5---->Purpose: The purpose of the last paragraph is to highlight one limitation of pollen analysis

One paragraph proposes a methodology and the last paragraph highlights a limitation of such methodology


(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.
no supporting example

(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.
The limitation must not be resolved per the author

(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.
Qualifies means here to give a qualifications whether is bad or good. Correct

(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view.
out of scope

(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph.
procedures are not discussed here



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


It's a great day to be alive!

Originally posted by auradediligodo on 08 Mar 2020, 01:06.
Last edited by auradediligodo on 08 Mar 2020, 05:20, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 08 Mar 2020, 02:43
1
Hello auradediligodo

Paragraphs 3 and 4 are the only places where pollen was used to argue against a view. Lines 26-33: pollen was used to show that some soil in County Down was tilled earlier than the 7th century.

Lines 44-47: pollen was used to show that flax wasn’t grown in County Down earlier than the 18th century. Knowing roughly where these are helps you eliminate trap answers, such as A.

(B) is CORRECT. This combines lines 26-30. Historians thought the soils weren’t tilled. Cereals would have required tilling. Therefore, historians thought cereals weren’t grown. But, pollen analysis showed that cereals were grown (lines 21-24).

Hope it helps
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New post 08 Mar 2020, 23:55
tagmag wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 228, Date : 25-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In tracing the changing face of the Irish
landscape, scholars have traditionally relied primarily
on evidence from historical documents. However, such
documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at
(5) best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts
of Ireland prior to the seventeenth century, and many
of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.

(10) Studies of fossilized pollen grains preserved in
peats and lake muds provide an additional means of
investigating vegetative landscape change. Details of
changes in vegetation resulting from both human
activities and natural events are reflected in the kinds
(15)and quantities of minute pollen grains that become
trapped in sediments. Analysis of samples can identify
which kinds of plants produced the preserved pollen
grains and when they were deposited, and in many
cases the findings can serve to supplement or correct
(20) the documentary record.

For example, analyses of samples from Long
Lough in County Down have revealed significant
patterns of cereal-grain pollen beginning by about 400
A.D. The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
(25) of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D. Because cereal cultivation would have required
(30) tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.

Another example concerns flax cultivation in
County Down, one of the great linen-producing areas
(35) of Ireland during the eighteenth century. Some aspects
of linen production in Down are well documented, but
the documentary record tells little about the cultivation
of flax, the plant from which linen is made, in that
area. The record of eighteenth-century linen
(40) production in Down, together with the knowledge that
flax cultivation had been established in Ireland
centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down
before the eighteenth century. But pollen analyses
(45) indicate that this is not the case; flax pollen was found
only in deposits laid down since the eighteenth
century.

It must be stressed, though, that there are limits to
the ability of the pollen record to reflect the vegetative
(50) history of the landscape. For example, pollen analyses
cannot identify the species, but only the genus or
family, of some plants. Among these is madder, a
cultivated dye plant of historical importance in Ireland.
Madder belongs to a plant family that also comprises
(55) various native weeds, including goosegrass. If madder
pollen were present in a deposit it would be
indistinguishable from that of uncultivated native
species.


1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.
(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.
(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.



2. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence against which one of the following views?

(A) The moldboard plough was introduced into Ireland in the seventh century.
(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.
(C) In certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the moldboard plough.
(D) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.
(E) Cereal grain cultivation began in County Down around 400 A.D.



3. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37) primarily refers to

(A) documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen
(B) the kinds and quantities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds
(C) written and pictorial descriptions by current historians of the events and landscapes of past centuries
(D) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recorded conditions and events of that time
(E) articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period



4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least some historians believed which one
of the following?


(A) The Irish landscape had experienced significant flooding during the seventeenth century.
(B) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in Ireland until at least the seventh century.
(C) The history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was well documented.
(D) Madder was not used as a dye plant in Ireland until after the eighteenth century.
(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County Down may well have occurred before the eighteenth century.



5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.
(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.
(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.
(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view.
(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph.



Source: LSAT June 2007








1. Which one of the following most accurately expresses the “main point” of the passage?

(A) Analysis of fossilized pollen is a useful means of supplementing and in some cases correcting other sources of information regarding changes in the Irish landscape.
…correct

Just to consider the whole article, para2-4 all agree that pollen records are an useful to record changes in landscape except in para5 which clearly states that “in certain situation” pollen record will be limited


(B) Analyses of historical documents, together with pollen evidence, have led to the revision of some previously accepted hypotheses regarding changes in the Irish landscape.

…incorrect
….para1 is about historical documents, and para2-5 only concerns about pollen evidence, these two themes are separate rather than mix together


(C) Analysis of fossilized pollen has proven to be a valuable tool in the identification of ancient plant species.


…incorrect
…. ….only in para2-4 agree on this view, para5 clearly states that
“pollen analyses cannot identify the species, but only the genus or
family, of some plants. “, thus this answer choice is incorrect


(D) Analysis of fossilized pollen has provided new evidence that the cultivation of such crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland.

….incorrect
Studies of fossilized pollen grains preserved in
peats and lake muds provide an additional means of
investigating vegetative landscape change. ....para2

analyses of samples from Long
Lough in County Down have revealed significant
patterns of cereal-grain pollen ....para3

Another example concerns flax cultivation in
County Down, ....para4

to find the evidence is only that we want to investigate the change to the landscape
not to say that crops as cereal grains, flax, and madder had a significant impact on the landscape of Ireland, these three are all mediums
which can help us know the change to the landscape better


(E) While pollen evidence can sometimes supplement other sources of historical information, its applicability is severely limited, since it cannot be used to identify plant species.

…incorrect

……”is severely limited”, this is too strong for describing an exception in para5, which states that “in some cases” pollen record cannot be used to identify plant species






2. The passage indicates that pollen analyses have provided evidence “against” which one of the following views?

Para3
For example, analyses of samples from Long
Lough in County Down have revealed significant
patterns of “cereal-grain pollen beginning by about 400
A.D.”(E) The substantial clay content of the soil in this part
(25) of Down makes cultivation by primitive tools difficult.
Historians thought that such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the
moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century
A.D.(B) “Because cereal cultivation would have required
(30) tilling of the soil”(D), the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.”


(A) The moldboard plough was introduced into Ireland in the seventh century.

….incorrect
…this is only a statement hold by historians, not enough to constitute a contender to the evidence


(B) In certain parts of County Down, cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century.

…..only partially correct

This is kind of a tricky option, I choose this option at first but later found it wrong
If you see only the later part of the whole sentence(cereal grains were not cultivated to any significant extent before the seventh century), it seems right intuitively and in line with sentence in para3(….such soils were not tilled to any significant extent until the introduction of the moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century A.D. Because cereal cultivation would have required
tilling of the soil….)

However, for the first half of the sentence(In certain parts of County Down), it is only part of the range to which the author mention (introduction of the moldboard plough to Ireland)


(C) In certain parts of Ireland, cereal grains have been cultivated continuously since the introduction of the moldboard plough.

….out of scope, we are not concern with cultivate continuously or not

(D) Cereal grain cultivation requires successful tilling of the soil.

….. incorrect
…this is a fact offer by the evidence, not against the evidence


(E) Cereal grain cultivation began in County Down around 400 A.D.

….. correct

refer to sentences below:


pollen evidence:
the pollen evidence indicates that these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled before the introduction of the new plough(7th century).

thus
analyses of samples from Long Lough in County Down have revealed significant patterns of cereal-grain pollen beginning by about 400 A.D. ….this is a statement against the later found pollen evidence







3. The phrase “documentary record” (lines 20 and 37) primarily refers to

Para1
In tracing the changing face of the Irish
landscape, scholars have traditionally relied primarily
on evidence from historical documents. However, such
documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at
(5) best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts
of Ireland prior to the seventeenth century, and many
of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.

-----since in para1 mentions that document records can only apply to military or commercial related matters
-----thus para2 propose an alternative way, which is that—pollen record, to compensate the flaw in document record
-----para3&4 just offer two examples to this alternative method

Pre-thinking
The author mention the document record in para2&4, these are same as the document record in para1, also these document records are different from the alternative method in para2-4




(A) documented results of analyses of fossilized pollen

….. incorrect
…opposite, these documents focus on military or commercial
related things rather than fossilized pollen


(B) the kinds and quantities of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds

….. incorrect
…..this is an alternative to “document record”
Refer to the sentence in para2:
Studies of fossilized pollen grains preserved in peats and lake muds provide an additional means of investigating vegetative landscape change.


(C) written and pictorial descriptions by current historians of the events and landscapes of past centuries

…incorrect
I choose this option at first, but later found it wrong

There’re some flaws, though not very obvious, in this option’s statement
(1) written and pictorial descriptions:…we cannot infer from the passage, nowhere in the passage mention about this

(2) past centuries….this is too broad since we don’t know for sure where the base of the timing point is
1.para1 :16/17th century
…..seventeenth century, and many of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries….
2.para3: 4 A.D./7th century
3.para4: 18th century


(D) government and commercial records, maps, and similar documents produced in the past that recorded conditions and events of that time

….correct
refer to sentence in para1:
and many of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.
----totally in line with the sentence in para1


(E) articles, books, and other documents by current historians listing and analyzing all the available evidence regarding a particular historical period

….out of scope,nowhere in the passage mention about this








4. The passage indicates that prior to the use of pollen analysis in the study of the history of the Irish landscape, at least “some historians” believed which one
of the following?

(A) The Irish landscape had experienced significant flooding during the seventeenth century.
….out of scope


(B) Cereal grain was not cultivated anywhere in Ireland until at least the seventh century.

….incorrect
This one is kind of a trap one:
Historians thought that ”such soils were not tilled to
any significant extent until the introduction of the moldboard plough to Ireland in the seventh century”A.D.
----make this sentence present in another way: before 7th century such soils has tilled to some extent---and if you say “was not cultivated anywhere before 7th century” will violate what the passage originally say



And the following sentence:
Because cereal cultivation would have required
(30) tilling of the soil, the pollen evidence indicates that
these soils must indeed have been successfully tilled
before the introduction of the new plough.
----thus if we change the statement of (B) to “Cereal grain was not cultivated to any significant extent in Ireland until at least the seventh century”, then it will be correct


(C) The history of the Irish landscape during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was well documented.

….incorrect
From sentences below we know that the record of the Irish landscape was not well documented

However, such
documentary sources provide a fragmentary record at
(5) best. Reliable accounts are very scarce for many parts
of Ireland prior to the seventeenth century, and many
of the relevant documents from the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries focus selectively on matters
relating to military or commercial interests.


(D) Madder was not used as a dye plant in Ireland until after the eighteenth century.

….out of scope


(E) The beginning of flax cultivation in County Down may well have occurred before the eighteenth century.

….correct
Refer to sentence below:
The record of eighteenth-century linen
(40) production in Down, together with the knowledge that
flax cultivation had been established in Ireland
centuries before that time, led some historians to
surmise that this plant was being cultivated in Down
before the eighteenth century.





5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the relationship between the second paragraph and the final paragraph?

(A) The second paragraph proposes a hypothesis for which the final paragraph offers a supporting example.

…incorrect
The second paragraph does not proposes a hypothesis

(B) The final paragraph describes a problem that must be solved before the method advocated in the second paragraph can be considered viable.

…incorrect
The final paragraph only put forward some limitation to pollen record, not to describe a problem

(C) The final paragraph qualifies the claim made in the second paragraph.

….correct

To qualify is to add limitations or conditions. In RC,if a claim is presented,the author of the passage(or another expert within the passage)can qualify the claim by showing that something else should be taken into consideration, or that the claim has some limitation



(D) The second paragraph describes a view against which the author intends to argue, and the final paragraph states the author’s argument against that view.

….incorrect
para2 does not describe a “view”, and in the whole article we found nowhere the author intend to argue anything, the author mostly agree that pollen para5

(E) The final paragraph offers procedures to supplement the method described in the second paragraph.
….out of scope
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