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It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The

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It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

(B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

(C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

(D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

(E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

Originally posted by skamal7 on 02 Jul 2013, 20:07.
Last edited by hazelnut on 21 Jun 2018, 21:13, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2013, 22:06
5
2
The structure of the argument is:

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

It is generally believed that X
However, ………..
Therefore, X is not as correct as it is believed.


==> Clearly, the first is a conclusion that the second (also a conclusion) tries to refute.

Note: in real GMAT questions, when you see quotes like:
- It is generally believed that…..
- Although scientist/people believe that……….
- Some of my critics claim that……..
- ....................

You will expect to see the opposite conclusion.

ANALYZE EACH ANSWER:

A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
Wrong. Because it starts with “therefore”, the second part is a conclusion, not evidence.

B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. SHELL GAME. The first is a generalization that archeaologists believed to be true, not the argument accepts as true. The argument actually refutes the archeaologists’ belief.

C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. The first is not an evidence, it’s a conclusion because it starts with “it is generally believed that….”.

D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO, Correct. The first is a conclusion that the second tries to refute. The second is the main conclusion of the argument.

E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. If the first is an intermediate conclusion, the second is main conclusion. Logically, the first should support the second, but it does not.

Waiting for OA.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2013, 22:02
1
In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
The second is not evidence: it's a conclusion: "therefore ...."

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is not accepted by the argument, it refuses it.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is simply not evidence.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO CORRECT

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
The first is not "an intermediate conclusion", it' s a conclusion period. E says that there are two conclusions of the argument, but this is not true as the argument has only one conclusion, so the is no such thing as an intermediate and main conclusion.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2013, 22:05
2
1
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
First part is correct but the 2nd bold is not an evidence but the conclusion. Incorrect

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
First part is a belief and it does not generalizes any thing. 2nd part is correct. Incorrect

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
1st BF is not a evidence, its just a statement or common belief. Incorrect

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
Not absolutely correct but the best among the rest. CORRECT

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
First bold face is not an intermediate conclusion. 2nd BF is correct
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2013, 22:08
zarollu,
Can you explaib what is the difference between intermediate conclusion and conclusion of argument.
Even option D mentions there are two conclusions right?
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Jul 2013, 22:15
pqhai,
Is it so that intermediate conclusion should always support the main conclusion of argument or else it will be a counter premise right?

I have seen you posting many good structures or patterns to attack the CR questions..When you get time please try to post all those tips in a post it will be of great help to people like us

Originally posted by skamal7 on 02 Jul 2013, 22:13.
Last edited by skamal7 on 02 Jul 2013, 22:15, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2013, 22:13
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skamal7 wrote:
zarollu,
Can you explaib what is the difference between intermediate conclusion and conclusion of argument.
Even option D mentions there are two conclusions right?


Yes, that's correct.

But if I say that the first part is an intermediate conclusion and the second is the main, the argument should look like this:

"Some evidence"
1st conclusion (intermediate) commonly accepted supported by the above evidence.
"some other evidence"
2nd conclusion of the overall passage.

Since the first one is not an intermediate conclusion, but it's a conclusion period, my answer is D.

Hope it's clear
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2013, 22:31
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skamal7 wrote:
pqhai,
Is it so that intermediate conclusion should always support the main conclusion of argument or else it will be a counter premise right?

I have seen you posting many good structures or patterns to attack the CR questions..When you get time please try to post all those tips in a post it will be of great help to people like us


Hi skaml7

Thanks for kind words, I appreciate.

Regarding "intermediate conclusion", it is not always counter the main conclusion. It can support the main conclusion also. In real GMAT, there are two types of argument structures
(1) Premises ==> Conclusion
(2) Premises ==> Intermediate conclusion ==> Main conclusion.

You will expect to see the type (2) in advanced questions.

Your questions:
- How do I determine the intermediate conclusion?
- Does it support / refute the main conclusion?


Answers are:
- How do I determine the intermediate conclusion?
Actually, the best way to determine the intermediate conclusion is to determine the main conclusion correctly. It seems ridiculous, but it's true. The main conclusion is KEY.

- Does it support / refute the main conclusion?
You can use techniques such as:
* Structure of the argument: If you don't see words such as: although, however, yet, but, nonetheless,....==> You may expect the intermediate conclusion supports the main conclusion.
* Use signal words (therefore, it's generally believed that, however, ......) to determine premise/conclusions.

Hope it helps you.

Regards.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2013, 01:42
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skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion


Whenever I see a BF question, I analyze the purpose of the BOLD statements. Once I do that, I almost nail it.
Here the two bold statements are:
1)It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C.
2)Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

Now consider the entire stimulus.
The first BF is something sort of common belief, followed by a fact irrelevant to the purpose.
Then a counter idea has been introduced, explicitly made clear by the usage of "however". Based upon this idea, a conclusion has been punched. This is our second BF. This second BF refutes the first BF.

Now analyze the answer choices.
a) first part is fine, but second is not. 2nd BF is not an evidence.
b) first is not a generalization.
c) first is not an evidence,
d) bingo
e) I feel that both the conclusions are balanced, henceforth can't make one conclusion as intermediate and the other as rest. The thing happening here is that the second conclusion is refuting the first conclusion.

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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2013, 04:10
Alright now most of you rejected A because according to you, the second bold face is not a conclusion. Now, my question is how do you decide if the first bold face is a conclusion. I do not see any conclusion indicators. To me, it merely seems like a claim (it is generally believed.)
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2013, 07:17
mohnish104 wrote:
Alright now most of you rejected A because according to you, the second bold face is not a conclusion. Now, my question is how do you decide if the first bold face is a conclusion. I do not see any conclusion indicators. To me, it merely seems like a claim (it is generally believed.)


Dear mohnish104,

I did it by POE.

A. The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation. Incorrect. The second is a conclusion and not an evidence as it uses 'therefore' so A is ruled out.

B. The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. Incorrect. Here the catch is that this option says that first says 'argument accepts as true' whereas the argument rejects it. The author has just stated a commonly held belief. So B is also ruled out.

C. The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. Incorrect. The first is definitely not an 'evidence'. So C is ruled out as well.

D. The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it. Correct. Makes most sense.

E. The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument. Incorrect. First is not an intermediate conclusion because it is not preceded by any premise. E is ruled out as well.

POE has its own risks, but in questions like these where I can really identify why an option is correct, I do it by POE.

Hope it helps! Kudos if you like ;)

Good luck!!
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2015, 01:52
pqhai wrote:
The structure of the argument is:

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

It is generally believed that X
However, ………..
Therefore, X is not as correct as it is believed.


==> Clearly, the first is a conclusion that the second (also a conclusion) tries to refute.

Note: in real GMAT questions, when you see quotes like:
- It is generally believed that…..
- Although scientist/people believe that……….
- Some of my critics claim that……..
- ....................

You will expect to see the opposite conclusion.

ANALYZE EACH ANSWER:

A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
Wrong. Because it starts with “therefore”, the second part is a conclusion, not evidence.

B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. SHELL GAME. The first is a generalization that archeaologists believed to be true, not the argument accepts as true. The argument actually refutes the archeaologists’ belief.

C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. The first is not an evidence, it’s a conclusion because it starts with “it is generally believed that….”.

D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO, Correct. The first is a conclusion that the second tries to refute. The second is the main conclusion of the argument.

E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. If the first is an intermediate conclusion, the second is main conclusion. Logically, the first should support the second, but it does not.

Waiting for OA.



I agree that an intermediate conclusion MUST support the Main Conclusion other wise it is not an intermediate conclusion.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2015, 07:43
pqhai wrote:
The structure of the argument is:

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:

It is generally believed that X
However, ………..
Therefore, X is not as correct as it is believed.


==> Clearly, the first is a conclusion that the second (also a conclusion) tries to refute.

Note: in real GMAT questions, when you see quotes like:
- It is generally believed that…..
- Although scientist/people believe that……….
- Some of my critics claim that……..
- ....................

You will expect to see the opposite conclusion.




ANALYZE EACH ANSWER:

A) The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.
Wrong. Because it starts with “therefore”, the second part is a conclusion, not evidence.

B) The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. SHELL GAME. The first is a generalization that archeaologists believed to be true, not the argument accepts as true. The argument actually refutes the archeaologists’ belief.

C) The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. The first is not an evidence, it’s a conclusion because it starts with “it is generally believed that….”.

D) The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.
IMO, Correct. The first is a conclusion that the second tries to refute. The second is the main conclusion of the argument.

E) The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
Wrong. If the first is an intermediate conclusion, the second is main conclusion. Logically, the first should support the second, but it does not.

Waiting for OA.


Hi,
I understood the explanation.
Here is it ok to assume this as conclusion because the stimulus uses "generally believed"?
I have a confusion regarding this.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2016, 18:45
skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion


the two statements clearly do not agree with each other.
the second is definitely a conclusion. it uses the premise (recently discovered graves - contain same pigments and dated to 4k BC)
the first is a general belief.

1. second is not evidence, it is the conclusion of the argument
2. the argument does not accept first statement as true, it is a general belief, and the argument goes against that belief. the second is indeed the conclusion. because part 1 is not correct, 2 is out.
3. the first one is definitely not evidence and definitely not used to support the conclusion. moreover, the conclusion opposes this statement, and not vice versa.
4. first is conclusion - well...i don't know if it can be named so..second is definitely a conclusion that refutes the first statement..so because of this..hold to this one..
5. first is not an intermediate conclusion and is not accepted as true.

so by POE, D is the best..though i do not accept with the terminology for the first statement.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2018, 08:38
skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

OA after some good discussion


Hi,
At first look we can say that the second bold face statement is definitely a conclusion and the first is a general belief which the argument refutes .The second bold statement
i.e the main conclusion actually refutes the first statement.
With this info. let's play the POE game.

A.The first part seems correct but the second bold statement isn't the evidence hence cancel A.
B.The first is a generalisation that is true but the argument goes on to refute it and doesn't accept it as true. Hence cancel B too.
C.The first isn't an evidence hence big no no.
D.This one is along the lines of our attempt at Pre-thinking.Hold on to it.
E.Okay this one's interesting.
It talks about intermediate conclusion and the main conclusion.
The second is rightly the main conclusion but the first isn't an intermediate conclusion.
Why???
Gyaan time.
"Intermediate conclusion must act as an premise to the main conclusion."
However this isn't the case here.
So cancel this one out too and D is our final answer.

Hope it helps.(It refers here to the entire explanation )We don't want a pronoun ambiguity
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2018, 14:57
IMO OA is D

'Intermediate conclusion' should support main conclusion.
The first is not support main conclusion. It is contradict to the second. So it cannot be a intermediate conlusion.
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2018, 11:29
skamal7 wrote:
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C. This name was given to the Indians because their graves contained quantities of a red pigment (iron ochre) that they presumably used to decorate their faces and bodies. However, recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C. Therefore, the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?


A. The first is a commonly held belief that the argument seeks to refute; the second is evidence used in that refutation.

B. The first is a generalization that the argument accepts as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

C. The first is evidence used to support a conclusion that the argument opposes; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.

D. The first is a conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is a conclusion that refutes it.

E. The first is an intermediate conclusion that is generally accepted as true; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.


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In this argument, the two boldfaced sections are each conclusions. The first is a conclusion that most people accept as true, and the second is the main conclusion of the argument, which refutes the first conclusion using the evidence in the third sentence. Answer choice (D) is thus correct. In (A), the first portion is described perfectly but the second part is incorrect: the last boldface portion is not evidence. In (B), the second portion is correct (it is the main conclusion) but the first part is incorrect. The term “generalization” is not accurate but more importantly the argument does NOT accept it as true, it refutes it. (C) is probably the most difficult incorrect answer. The second portion is correct but the first is not: the first portion is not evidence but rather a widely accepted conclusion whose evidence is not given in this argument. In (E), the first is definitely not an intermediate conclusion, so it is incorrect. Answer is (D).
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2018, 09:21
Can conclusions start with " It is generally believed..."..?
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2018, 09:50
1
swathiallumalla wrote:
Can conclusions start with " It is generally believed..."..?


Hey swathiallumalla ,

Yes, it is perfectly fine to have the conclusion in the form mentioned.

I hope that helps!
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The  [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2018, 17:38
Arguments main conclusion:-
the “Red Paint People” must have occupied the coast of Maine much earlier than archaeologists previously believed.

Premise:-
recently discovered Indian grave sites on the coast of Maine that contain these same red pigments have been conclusively dated to 4000 B.C.

Counterpoint (which is not authors conclusion):-
It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The Red Paint People” first occupied the coast of Maine in approximately 3000 B.C.

Answer choice D correctly captures the above analysis
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Re: It is generally believed that an Indian tribe known as “The &nbs [#permalink] 29 May 2018, 17:38

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